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Nutrition and Health in Ethiopia

Evaluation of the Plant Genetic Resources Centre of Ethiopia's Germplasm Collection with Regard to an improved Utilization for a sufficient and healthy Nutrition in Ethiopia 1992

by Dr. Johann Georg Schnitzer

Published on Internet September 2013

 

 

Table of Contents

 

Introduction

 

The Terms of Reference

  Part I current Status, with Comments and Hints

1.

Determine current status to identify germplasm material of special nutritional and health value

 

Health and nutrition values of the germplasm still unknown

 

Lysine - important limiting essential amino-acid

 

Higher biological protein values by foodstuff combinations

 

Different protein contents depending on agricultural method

 

Each yield - and its soil - must be analyzed again

 

Currently only some general protein content can be analyzed

 

Available analyzing methods don't allow health evaluations

 

Cooperations between different institutions not yet working

2.

Determine current status to develop special food resources of importance

 

Enjera

 

Shortage of t'eff

 

Experiments with other cereal mixtures to make enjera

 

Experiments with sorghum mixtures should be continued

 

The not yet studied tannin problem

 

Patability more than a tannin problem - a practical example

 

Less patability and health value - by storage and oxidation

 

Hints what is important

 

No practical uses up to now made from enjera experiments

 

No data about influence of different enjeras on health

 

Not yet food projects important for Primary Health Care

 

Swedish study about Ethiopian food compositions 1975

 

Essential amino-acids analyzed

 

Animal feeding experiments

 

Enjera - loosing 70% of health value by fermentation!!

 

Collo (roasted barley) without any health value!

 

Weaning food FAFFA: Growth effect destroyed by roasting soy

 

Barley: More than double growth and health value than t'eff

 

No practical uses made up to now from results reported 1975

 

Some scientific deficiencies in the experiments

 

Difference between white and red t'eff not yet proofed

 

Growth rate not only from protein; growing factors of seeds

 

No more daily fresh grinding: Degeneration of population!

 

Developing countries should avoid degeneration

 

Baby-Food

 

Weaning Food tasting experiments

 

The method used

 

Misleading results by adding refined industrial sugar

 

Permanent sugar consumption causes damages and degeneration

 

Sugar: Chemical Substance and drug, no natural foodstuff

 

Weaning food with sugar boiled: Destruction of protein!

 

Boiling baby food makes efforts to increase lysine useless!

 

Most available cereals for baby food

 

Uses of tasting studies: Recipees and the FAFFA production

 

Data of growth rates at mother and child health stations

 

The actual supplies and need of baby foods

 

Health of the nation depends on health quality of baby food

 

Important brestfeeding and the handicapped office employees

 

Actual composition of FAFFA baby food

 

Other mixtures used for home-made weaning food

 

Import of weaning food consumes foreign exchange per year about 2 billion 216 million US$!

 

The use of raw, unheated, undenaturated baby food: Forgotten

 

Health values of weaning food used low or even negative

 

Already 49% of Ethiopians showing degeneration symptoms

3.

Problems in Ethiopia, where the Genebank's collection and expertise could be valuable

 

Starvation - lack of cereals

 

How the Genebank could help

 

Erosion

 

How the Genebank could help

 

Lack of foreign currency

 

How the Genebank could help

 

Genetic erosion

 

New food crop varieties: Not proofed in marginal climates

 

New developed seed varieties: Health risks unknown

 

Improving health value never was purpose of new varieties

 

Most heavy degeneration just where the new varieties eaten

 

Only traditional landraces proofed bases of healthy people

 

Food processing and preparation also of influence

 

How the Genebank can help

4.

Data for nationally coordinated program for sufficient and healthy nutrition

 

A fast growing population (yearly growth rate 2.9%

 

No data about foodstuff quantities, processing, storage

 

No data about deficiencies and malnutrition diseases

 

Most important: Protein deficiency

 

Suggestions of ENI (Ethiopian Nutrition Institute) to solve the heavy deficiencies

 

Suggestions of ENI can't solve the problem of deficiencies

 

Lack of trace elements - e.g. iodine - by oversupply of nitrate?

 

Drug distribution can't replace natural healthy nutrition

 

No data about degeneration signs or healthy populations

 

No standard available to measure health or degeneration

 

Suggestions of ENI for a nationally coordinated program

 

Current status

 

Part II (Projects Outlines, Recommendations)

1.

A project outline to identify germplasm material of nutritional and health value

 

Analyzing health-relevant contents of germplasm varieties

 

Laboratory for Analyses

 

Which content of what to analyze?

 

Contents of food crop varieties

 

Total protein and essential amino acids

 

Fat acids

 

Carbohydrates

 

Fibres

 

Vitamins

 

Enzymes

 

Hormones

 

Aromatic substances

 

Minerals

 

Trace elements

 

Inhibitors

 

Toxins

 

All natural and artificial pollutions

 

Radioactivity and radioactive elements

 

Analyses of composition and contents of the soils

 

Animal feeding laboratory for control of health and nutrition values of food

 

Computer monitoring system for control of the bulk of PGRC/E's germplasm collection

 

Introduction

 

Implementation strategy

 

Suggestion for a time schedule

 

How to proceed basically

 

Computer equipment

 

Data bases

 

Planning of Analyses and animal feeding laboratory, integration of computer system

 

Planning of the Analyses Laboratory

 

Planning of the animal feeding laboratory

 

Planning of integration of the computer monitoring system

2.

A project outline to develop special food resources of importance in Primary Health Care

 

Develop health-improved enjera mixtures and preparations

 

Improve nutrition value of seed mixtures

 

Fresh grinding promotion

 

Health-value maintaining enjera flour mixtures

 

Health-modified fermentation process

 

Possible: Professionally produced, packed, sterilized, storable high health value enjera

 

Animal feeding experiments for evaluation

 

Immediate practical result of this project: Health-improved enjera processing principles

 

Healthy enjera pamphlet with instructions, to distribute

 

Develop health-improved baby food mixtures and preparations

 

Improve growth, protein and nutrition values if seed mixtures for baby food

 

Fresh grinding and germinating promotion 

 

Modified healthy fresh uncooked preparation process

 

Immediate practical result of this project: Health-improved baby food processing principles

 

Healthy baby food pamphlet with instructions to distribute

3.

A project outline for a nationally coordinated nutrition program

 

Summary

4.

Appendix I to project outline

 

Appendix II to project outline

 

Pamphlet to print

 

 

© Copyright 1989-1992-2013  by Dr. J. G. Schnitzer, D-88045 Friedrichshafen, Germany

 

 

 

 

Introduction

It was May 23rd 1983, when Dr. Melaku Worede (Director of the Plant Genetic Resources Centre of Ethiopia) and Dr. Johann Georg Schnitzer (Germany) met a first time at the Genebank in Addis Ababa.

Immediately both scientists were recognizing the high synergetic effect for human health, nutrition and environment, if they could cooperate.

In a detailed letter of October 12, 1983 ro Dr. Melaku Worede, Dr. Johann Georg Schnitzer described an important centre point of their possibilities:

'Basically we want to get conditions concerning nutrition in which the GENOTYPE  of human being can be fully realized in the PHENOTYPE. That means healthy, intelligent and beautiful people with a powerful internal will of performance. This step makes it possible to develop civilization on to a higher level without chronic ailments and without starvation in the world.'

('Genotype' is used here for the complete genetic information of the fecundated ovo, ready to be realized in the new human being).

For several following years the intended cooperation couldn't be realized. In 1989, the Genebank asked officially the German Government's organization GTZ (Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, Eschborn), fo fund consultation of the Genebank By Dr. Johann Georg Schnitzer. At last, it realized in February 1992 by this consultancy for 'Evaluation of the Genebank's Germplasm Collection with Regard to an improved Utilization for a sufficient and healthy Nutrition in Ethiopia'.

This consultant project was limited to about 0.6 man-months in Ethiopia in February 1992, correlated preparation work before going there, and immediate work on results of the investigations after return to Germany, to reach the agreed delivery date end of March 1992.

Because already beginning of April 1992 this report is wished to be basis of further discussions of Dr. Melaku Worede with the GTZ Representative at the Genebank in Addis Ababa.

To determine the current status and the needs of development, a questionnaire was worked out and faxed to Ethiopia January 25, 1992, before the stay of Dr. Schnitzer there. Copies were given immediately by the Genebank to the Ethiopian Nutrition Institute ENI and to the Ministry of Health of Ethiopia (MOH).

Most of the answers were given by the Genebank and ENI. Other answers could be found by interviewing one manager of the FAFFA factory (babyfood production). The MOH could not answer the questions because of some organisatorial problems.

In Part I the current status of the term is reported and already some comments are given and conclusions are made.

In Part II the project outlines are given.

Also in Part II, two immediate practical developments of considerable importance for Ethiopia and the second even for other countries are reported: An improvement of health and nutrition value of home-made Ethiopian bread (enjera); and an optimal healthy and very cheap home-made weaning food.

Some unexpected and surprising results were found.

In general, this report is opening the chance for Ethiopia, to become independent in its self-sufficient food supply from own agricultural production, by using the Genebank's collection and expertise.

Thanks have to be said to

Dr. Melaku Worede,
Director of the Plant Genetic Resources Centre (Genebank), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;

Dr. Thomas Labahn,
Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), D6236 Eschborn, Germany;

Mr. Regassa Feyissa,
Head, conservation and Further Evaluation Department,
Plant Genetic Resources Centre (Genebank), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;

Mrs. Almaz Negash,
Research Officer,
Plant Genetic Resources Centre (Genebank), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;

Mrs. Beyenech Wossene,
Laboratory Assistant
and mother of the participating babyfood-testing baby Daniel,
Plant Genetic Resources Centre (Genebank), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;

Daniel Agize,
7 months old first babyfood-testing baby,
son of Mrs. Beyenesch Wossene, Addis Ababa;

Ethiopian Nutrition Institute (ENI),
Director Dr. Aberra Bekele and
Mr. Gugsa Abate, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;

Mr. Moges Abebe,
Technical & Production Manager,
Faffa Food Factory
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;

Ms. Azeb Mulugeta Desta,
c/o Dr. J. G. Schnitzer
D-7770 Überlingen, Germany 

Dr. Kurt Gruber,
Physisist and Computer Specialist
Connex Systems Engineering
CH-8910 Affoltern am Albis, Switzerland

Dr. Kurt Gruber was cooperating with Dr. Johann Georg Schnitzer in the preparation of the terms of reference and the questionnaire, and he - as the specialist of information processing structures - worked out the chapters about the information and data processing possibilities indispensable to carry out such voluminous tasks and projects.

It is our wish, that this report might be the runway for takeoff for projects and cooperation, which result in health and prosperity for the Ethiopian population and which contribute to overcome the present critical stage of human development, to reach a new higher level of civilization, where health and sufficient food for everybody will be normality.

Überlingen am Bodensee (Germany), March 31, 1992

Dr. Johann Georg Schnitzer

 

P.S. This is the second edition.

After the first edition of March 31, 1992 was delivered on April 3, 1992, corrections were wished by the sponsor, which are carried out in this second edition.

Überlingen am Bodensee (Germany), June 18, 1992 

Dr. Johann Georg Schnitzer

 

September 2013, Dr. Johann Georg Schnitzer has published this report on his website:

http://www.dr-schnitzer.de/nutrition-and-health-in-ethiopia.html

 

The present (2013) address and contact data are:

Dr. Johann Georg Schnitzer
Zeppelinstr. 88,
D-88045 Friedrichshafen,
Deutschland/Germany
Fax +49-(0)7541-398561
mailto:Dr.Schnitzer@t-online.de E-Mail
http://www.dr-schnitzer.de D+E Site (German and English)
http://www.dr-schnitzer-buecher.de books (German and English)
http://www.dr-schnitzer.de/intrasearch.html Search (German and English)
http://www.dr-schnitzer.de/schnitzerreport-index.htm Experiences (German)
http://www.dr-schnitzer.de/emailnachrichten.html News (German)
http://www.dr-schnitzer.de/forum-documentation.html (German) 

____________________________________________________

The important development, the present (2013) status, the address and the actual efforts of the Ethiopian Genebank see here:

Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity

http://www.ibc.gov.et/
info@ibc.gov.et
P.O.Box 30726
Addis Ababa
Ethiopia

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The Terms of Reference

Elaboration of a Report with subject:

Evaluation of the Genebank's Germplasm collection with regard to an improved utilization for a sufficient and healthy nutrition in Ethiopia.

  1. Determine current status and develop a project outline to identify germplasm material possessing special characteristics of nutritional and health value with particular reference to indigenous landraces or primitive cultivars which constitute the bulk of PRGC/E's germplasm collection.

  2. Determine current status and develop a project outline to develop special food resources of importance in primary health care.

  3. Information aquisition to develop a list of problems in Ethiopia where Genebank's collection and expertise could be valuable (e.g. baby food).

  4. Develop a project outline for a nationally coordinated nutritional program providing sufficient and healthy nutrition for the country, involving the Ministry of Health (MOH) and a foreign institution collaborating with both MOH and PRGC/E.

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Part I

Current Status, with Comments and Hints

1.

Determine current status to identify germplasm material possessing special characteristics of nutritional and health value with particular reference to indigenous landraces or primitive cultivars which constitute the bulk of PGRC/E's germplasm collection

1.1.1.

Health and nutrition values of the germplasm still unknown

 

The very important bulk of PGRC/E's Germplasm collection itself is containing about 52,000 varieties of food crops, medicinal plants and spices plants of East Africa.

But the knowledge about the nutritional and health value of these varieties is yet very low. Only the general protein contents ara analyzed - without determining the contents of the essential amino acids - of about 500 wheat samples and of about 3500 sorghum samples.

 

Lysine - important limiting essential amino-acid

The essential amino-acid lysine is - because of relative low contents in most cereals - a 'limiting' amino-acid. That means: All other amino-acids can only be used to built up the complete protein of the human body so long as there is lysine available. As soon as all lysine is consumed, the leftover of the other essential amino-acids can no more serve to built up more complete body protein.

Up to now, only some sorghum types could be analyzed and proofed to have higher contents of lysine. To know more about, would be of high practical importance for a sufficient and healthy nutrition of the population.

The relative lowest content of one of the eleven essential amino-acids limits the biological use of all others. Whilst in cereals the limiting amino-acid mostly is lysine, the protein of legumes (like lentils, chickpeas, peas) (like lentils, peas, chickpeas) can be limited by tryptophane.

 

Higher biological protein values by foodstuff combinations

By combining e.g. a type of cereal limited byy lysine with a leguminose limited by tryptophane, they complement each other. The biological value of their combined proteins is considerably higher than each of them alone. But to optimize and recommend for practical use such combinations, the contents of all essential amino-acids of each important variety must be known.

 

Different protein contents depending on agricultural method

The contents of essential amino-acids even of the same type of a food crop is different, depending on the methods of agriculture. Wheat e.g. cultivated by chemical fertilizers has a biological value of 29.7 (29.7% of its protein can be used to built up complete human body protein). Grown without chemical fertilizers on natural soil with enough humus, wheat has a considerably higher biological value of 48! To compare with: The biological value of cow milk protein is 44.9.

 

Each yield - and its soil - must be analyzed again

This fact is leading to two conclusions:

  1. Each yield of even the same variety must be analyzed again, when the recommendations shall be of practical value for health and nutrition of the population;

  2. The analyses of the soils concerning their biological values for feeding the plants growing in and on them must be added, to optimize the agricultural methods serving an optimal healthy and nutritious food production.

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Currently only some general protein content can be analyzed

1.1.2.

Currently the Genebank is continuing to analyze - by their very limited laboratory possibilities - the general protein content of more food crop varieties. But even this has become difficult, because of lack of functioning equipment and also lack of equipment and chemicals for calibration of their laboratory equipment.

1.1.3.

The results of a recent study with similar terms of reference, carried out by Dr. Dendy, were mainly - according to only a letter of him available at the Genebank in February 1992 - that the analyses of general protein, carried out ba the Genebank's laboratory possibilities, were quite different from analyses of the same sorghum types he carried out in England. So he emphasizes the need for regular checking against a primary standard.

 

Available analyzing methods don't allow health evaluations

1.1.4.

To identify germplasm material with special characteristics of nutritional and health value, currently there is only available the general protein evaluating, but this is not working properly (lack of equipment itself, and lack of calibration chemicals and equipments).

1.1.5.

Practical uses which have been made up to now of the results of previous investigations on health and nutritional value of germplasms, are the increase of high lysine sorghum types in breeding programs.

 

Cooperations between different institutions not yet working

1.1.6

Cooperations between different institutions in Ethiopia to improve utilization of the Genebank's germplasm collection are not yet established.

There was only some cooperation 4 years ago between the FAFFA-(babyfood)-factory and ENI (Ethiopian Nutrition Institute) in developing a sorghum-containing FAFFA and comparing it with t'eff-FAFFA and wheat-FAFFA. But only the taste and acceptance, no health values were tested.

At this time the FAFFA factory even is afraid not to get enough raw materials for continuing its present supply of 72-80t per day (which is only 5% of the total purchased baby-food in Ethiopia).

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2,

Determine current status to develop special food resources of importance in primary health care

2.1

Enjera

 

Shortage of t'eff

2.1.1.

T'eff, as the original seed to produce the Ethiopian fermented enjera (for those who don't know it: a type of flat bread, like a pancake, small pieces of which are used by the Ethiopians as Europeans use fork or spoon ore Chinese use sticks - to take up with it and eat any other food), presently is not available in sufficient quantities. Also it has become very expensive (200 - 300 birr per 100 kg). Therefore already different other cereals are used to mix it with t'eff or to replace it, like sorghum, maize, wheat, barley.

 

Experiments with other cereal mixtures to make enjera

2.1.2

The ENI (Ethiopian Nutrition Institute) has already tried, about two years ago, different other mixtures of raw materials, which would be the best to replace partially t'eff. The aspects of testing were not health, but only those of taste and appearance, by which as best mixtures came out:

Barley 30%, wheat 30%, t'eff 40%;

maize 60%, t'eff 40%;

Wheat 60%, t'eff 40%;

barley 40%, t'eff 60%.

2.1.3.1.

Most sufficient supply with seeds as raw materials for enjera made from mixtures would be possible with barley, wheat, sorghum and t'eff.

2.1.3.2.

Sorghum also was used in the experiments of ENI (sorghum 80%, wheat 20% and another sorghum 70%, wheat 15%, t'eff 15%), bit it didn't come into the group of the best ones (concerning taste and appearance).

 

Experiments with sorghum mixtures should be continued

However, taking into consideration that on varieties of sorghum about 400 million people depend in Africa and Asia, this topic should not yet be finalized. The tested mixtures contain less t'eff (only 15%) than all the other, as better tested mixtures (40-50% of t'eff).

Also there is no difference made between white and coloured sorghum varieties, and it is not told if the flours were freshly ground or stored ones.

It seems that the white ones are partially those with higher protein contents - and lower contents of tannin.

 

The not yet studied tannin problem

Tannin is reducing the patability, what was the major problem the FAFFA factory faced when trying to develop the sorghum-containing FAFFA.

Also it is suspected that the tannin content could have a negative impact on the synthesis of protein and the activity of enzymes.

 

Patability more than a tannin problem - a practical example

2.1.3.3.

The problem of patability of enjera from coloured sorghum was the one bringing Dr. Johann Georg Schnitzer the first time to Ethiopia in 1983:

The German Karlheinz Böhm had started his first aid project near Bisidimo (not far from Harrar). About 800 ha to plant food for about 1200 refugees were available in the project. On 600 ha a coloured variety, called 'Kenia-sorghum', was cultivated. The reason to take a coloured variety was its resistance to the weaver birds, who sometimes eat up most of the white sorghum seeds on the fields before the farmers are able to harvest it. The coloured variety they don't touch.

But after the coloured sorghum was harvested and used to prepare enjera, the people said: 'We cannot eat it, it has a bitter taste.' Böhm's first idea was to develop a pealing machine. But Dr. Schnitzer dissuaded to do so, because he knew already: Taking off any part from a seed always means danger of diseases and degeneration for the population.

First he asked for sample of the sorghum to send to him, but there he couldn't find a bitter taste. So he went himself to Ethiopia to study the problem on the spot.

Going around when the project was shown to him, they reached a milling house with a medium size mill and a gasoline motor to drive it. Dr. Schnitzer asked: 'How many times do you grind here?' The answer: 'Once each three weeks.' Dr. Schnitzer: 'Just we found the solution of this problem! Immediately after grinding any seed flour starts to oxidate, loosing its health values very fast, within some hours or days. Depending on the contents, some types of seeds develop by oxidation a bitter taste. The same e.g. happens to oats flour. You must start to grind each day, and only grind what you need the same day to prepare the food and enjera, then there will be no more bitter taste!'

They did so, and there was no more bitter taste. What was even more important: The high health value of the seeds didn't get lost on the way, it fully reached the food and the stomach of the people (exception: Losses by fermentation of the dow). 

 

Less patability and health value - by storage and oxidation

Later, coming back to Addis Ababa, Dr. Schnitzer discussed this with Dr. Krauss, who was working for the Genebank at that time. He confirmed, that the colour substances of the skin of sorghum, being oxidized, become bitter tasting substances.

 

Hints what is important

This example is already giving hints, that on one side it is important to know the different contents of varieties, and on the other side to use the best ways of storing (preferably als unground germinable seeds) and fresh processing, to reach the best final health values of the food preparations.

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No practical uses up to now made from enjera experiments

2.1.4.

Up to now, no practical uses have been made of the study about different seed flour mixtures to prepare enjera (e.g. no recommendations about alternative mixtures, to compensate partially the lack of t'eff, have been given to the population).

 

No data about influence of different enjeras on health

2.1.5.

As well, no data are available about the influence of different enjera mixtures on the health status of the population.

 

Not yet food projects important for Primary Health Care

2.1.6.

Up to now, except a study on composite flour mentioned by ENI without further details, no projects have been carried out to develop special food resources of importance in primary health care.

 

Swedish study about Ethiopian food compositions 1975

2.1.7.

From 1964 to 1975 studies to develop a 'Food Composition Table for Use in Ethiopia I and II' were sponsored by the Swedish International Development Authority, Stockholm, and the Ministry of Public Health, Addis Ababa.

Both tables were published 1975 in Uppsala, Sweden, and can be obtained as well at the Ethiopian Nutrition Institute, P.O.Box 5654, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, as at the Institute of Medical Industry, Biomedical Centre, University of Uppsala, P.O.Box 575, S-75123 Uppsala, Sweden.

Table I is showing some basic contents of most Ethiopian foodstuffs: Calories, nitrogen, total protein, fat, carbohydrates incl. fiber, fiber, ash, calcium, phosphorous, iron, carotene equivalent, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, tryptophan, ascorbic acid.

but some foodstuffs are not analyzed, like bananas, which woould be important for nutrition of babies and children.

 

Essential amino-acids analyzed

 

Table II in its first part reveals the analyzed contents of 18 amino-acids, including all essential amino-acids and including glutamic acid (which is important for the functions of the brain).

 

Animal feeding experiments

 

In its second part animal feeding experiments were reported, carried out to find the growth rate effect of the different foodstuffs and food preparations.

Testing the growth effects of t'eff varieties and of enjera preparations made from, results of high practical importance for health constitution of Ethiopian population were reported (page 42):

The growth effect of different t'eff preparations on young laboratory rats was tested, measured in grams of increased weight within a period of 3 weeks:

 

Preparation

Growth in g within 3 weeks

T'eff flour (it is not reported if freshly ground)

....... 26.8 g   (+ - 7.1)

Unfermented bread from red t'eff

....... 27.3 g   (+ - 6.5)

Bread from red t'eff, made in Ethiopia

....... 15.6 g   (+ - 6.6)

Bread from white t'eff, made in Ethiopia

.......... 8.3 g   (+ - 3.7)

24 hours fermented bread from red t'eff

........ 11.7 g   (+ - 4.4)

48 hours fermented, from red t'eff

.......... 7.9 g   (+ - 2.0)

72 hours fermented, from red t'eff

.......... 8.0 g   (+ - 2.7)

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Enjera - loosing 70% of health value by fermentation!!

 

These experiments are proofing that the enjera, just by the fermentation process, is loosing most of the original health and growth value. This is a very heavy disadvantage and damage for health constitution of the Ethiopian population, and sure one of the reasons for already 49% degeneration signs found in 1989 in the Addis Ababa Population.

 

Collo (roasted barley) without any health value!

 

Another result reported in this Table II is concerning barley and the effect of the roasting process:

 

Preparation

Growth in g within 3 weeks

Barley, flour, unroasted

....... 72.6 g   (+ - 7.2)

Barley, flour, roasted

.......... 6.5 g   (+ - 3.6)

 

This shows the complete destruction of the growth and cell regeneration effects ba roasting. So the 'collo', which is roasted barley the Ethiopians like to eat when drinking coffee or other beverages, has only a drastically reduced health value compared to original barley.

This is, however, of restricted concern because the quantities of collo eaten are relatively small.

 

Weaning food FAFFA: Growth effect destroyed by roasting soy

 

In contrast, this result has a strong effect for the weaning food FAFFA because the high protein containing soybeans are roasted before grinding and adding to the mixture, at a temperature of about 160° C. The intention is to destroy the trypsin inhibitors of the soybeans. But the total effect is a complete denaturation of its protein and a complete destruction of its growing effects.

It is also known from other animal experiments, that the growing and cell regenerating effects of seeds and cereals are completely destroyed at temperatures of 160° C and above. The first denaturating effects start already at temperatures above 42° C (enzymes).

 

Barley: More than double growth and health value than t'eff

 

The result regarding barley is showing that the growth and cell regenerating effects of barley are more than double, compared to t'eff, which should be taken as one of the hints, which kind of experiments and developments should be made to improve the health quality of nutrition.

 

No practical uses made up to now from results reported 1975

2.1.8.

Up to now, no practical uses or consequences of these scientific results, published in 1975, have been worked out.

 

Some scientific deficiencies in the experiments

2.1.9.

The results of these analyses reported in Table II did not report if the flours used were freshly ground or how long they were stored before feeding. This would be very important to get correct results. Because it is known that already some hours or days after grinding the cereal flours lose fast their growth effects, which are important parameters of their health maintaining values.

 

Difference between white and red t'eff not yet proofed

 

By this mistake e.g. the big difference between white and red t'eff could be artificially produced; perhaps the flour of the red t#eff used for the experiments was more freshly ground and the flour of the white t'eff stored for 4 weeks, having lost by that time nearly all of its growing effects.

 

Growth rate not only from protein; growing factors of seeds

 

It would be a misperception of data reported in Table II, that the growth rate would be based only on the protein value and contents. It is known from animal growth experiments, that even under full protein supply the growth can be reduced or stopped by lack of other substances, which must be completely available to allow growth (in young organisms) and cell regeneration (in adult organisms). Those are groups of minerals, trace elements, vitamins and other substances, which are not yet completely analyzed. But it is proofed, that they are completely available in the germs of cereals and other seeds, and that their efficacy (that means their measurable biological growth and cell regenerating effects) gets very fast lost after grinding of the seeds and storing them under normal atmospheric conditions open or in sacks, paper- or plastic sacks or silos.

 

No more daily fresh grinding: Degeneration of population!

 

The old Ethiopian tradition of grinding each day freshly what is needed to prepare the food of the day, has been given up more and more. People go once per month to a milling place, to grind all the flour for the month; some even grind only once per year! This is a further reason for the growing degeneration of the population and of the destruction of the former very strong health constitution of the Ethiopians. The economy of the country will not be able to carry the costs of the degeneration ailments which must be suspected in the near future and which are already developing (e.g. tooth decay, hypertension, diabetes, reduced development of the bones, muscles, brain, malformation of the skeleton.

 

Developing countries should avoid degeneration

 

Developing countries like Ethiopia should avoid completely the degeneration of their population. The knowledge how to do it is available. Healthy populations - and a healthy, unpolluted evironment and agriculture - are their most important natural capital.

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2.2.

Baby-Food

 

Weaning Food tasting experiments

2.2.1.

Several weaning food mixes have been tasted by ENI (but not tested or studied on their different health effects):

 

Broad beans +wheat, +barley, +t'eff, +sorghum, +maize, +ensete;
Field peas +wheat, +barley, +t'eff, +sorghum, +maize, +ensete;
Lentils +wheat, +barley, +t'eff.

 

2.2.2.

The best accepted ones were the underlined ones.

 

The method used

 

The procedure was to determine the mixture, then to prepare it, to taste it by adult persons and if found tasty to feed it to babies and children. By taking the weight of the mixture before feeding it to a certain number and age group of them, and taking later the weight of the leftover, the acceptance was found out. Those were then published to be recommended by the advisers in the villages.

 

Misleading results by adding refined industrial sugar

 

The method can mislead, because very often 10-20 g or sugar per child are added in these mixtures, and already the ENI found a tendency to the sweet side. Once adapted to sweet taste, the children will prefer higher and higher sugar concentration. By those tests, the recommended and produced babyfood mixtures will become more and more sweet.

 

Permanent sugar consumption causes damages and degeneration

 

The permanent consumption of considerable amounts of sugar will destroy the teeth by dental caries, reduce the calcium and phosphorus contents of the bones (osteoporosis) and produce a deficiency of B-vitamins, with all negative consequences for disorders of metabolism and general health constitution.

 

Sugar: Chemical Substance and drug, no natural foodstuff

 

Sugar - processed refined industrial sugar - is no natural food, it is a pure chemical substance and it is not just a refined foodstuff. It is as well a substance similar to drugs which make consumers addicted to it. All normal natural foodstuffs are only eaten so long as there is hunger or appetite for them. The more eaten of them, the lower hunger or appetite for it. But with sugr it is something else. A person who is used to sugar and takes it, will feel to want more and more of it, and try to get higher and higher concentrations.

 

Weaning food with sugar boiled: Destruction of protein!

 

There is another negative effect of adding sugar to a baby food mixture. In each of the recipes given it is recommended to mix with the ingredients flour, milk, sugar, and then to boil it. What happens, is described by Frédéric Stahl, Strasbourg, in his book 'Die Erde hat Eiweiß für alle' (Earth has sufficient protein for all humans) 1977, page 25:

'Protein - except enzyme protein - remains unchanged up to about 85° C. In case the foodstuff is containing - besides protein - also sugar, either mono- or disaccharides, (then) the Maillard-Reaction happens (reaction between the CO-group of the sugar and an NH2-group of an amino-acid, by exit of water, as Bürke is describing in detail). The compounds produced are no more decomposed by the digestive enzymes. In the proteins the amino-acids are connected by their COOH- and NH2-groups. Therefore, only those amino-acids of a protein molecule can participate in the Maillard-Reaction, which contain several NH2-groups. To those belongs lysine.'

'Because the seeds contain - besides starch - also small amounts of sugar, and cereal protein mostly limited by lysine, it is to understand that by cooking, baking and frying the biological value of cereals is reduced Bürke investigated this extensively by experiments.'

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Boiling baby food makes efforts to increase lysine useless!

 

It is easy to imagine, that all efforts, e.g. to increase breeding of sorghum types with higher lysine contents, would become useless, when after that mixtures of it with sugar are developed and recommended to boil.

 

Most available cereals for baby food

2.2.3.

The sufficiency of cereals to prepare baby food differs from area to area. But mostly available are barley, wheat, sorghum and t'eff. The FAFFA factory is reporting now lack of soya and chickpeas.

 

Uses of tasting studies: Recipees and the FAFFA production

2.2.4.

The practical uses of the studies on (acceptance of) baby food have been made by developing the production of FAFFA, and by giving printed recipes to the health advisors and mother and child health stations.

 

Data of growth rates at mother and child health stations

2.2.5.

Te mother and child health stations and also the RRC (Relief and Rehabilitation Commission) possess data about the growing rates of the children.

 

The actual supplies and need of baby foods

2.2.6.

With the manufactured FAFFA baby food (72-80 t per day) actually estimated 750,000 babies are fed, mostly getting some additional other food and breastfeeding. In Ethiopia there are about 1.5 million babies below 1 year of age, out of the roughly 5 million babies. In total there are about 15 million children between 0 and 5 years of age. This information was given by the Technical & Production Manager of the FAFFA factory to Dr. J. G. Schnitzer in February 1992.

The considerably high percentage of babies between 0 and 5 years of the total population of actually 56 million Ethiopians (in 1992) is demonstrating the high growing rate of 2.9% of the population. The population growth during the next 10 years is estimated to increase the Ethiopians up to 74.5 millions in the year 2002.

The actual numbers of 1992 mean, calculating an average of (dry) 180 g of weaning food product per day and child, an actually needed daily production of 2.700 t of weaning food.

 

Health of the nation depends on health quality of baby food

 

It's easy to imagine, that the biological health quality and performance of the population depends considerably on the biological and health quality of these 2.700 t per day or 995.500 t per year of weaning food.

 

Important breastfeeding and the handicapped office employees

2,2,8.

Breastfeeding, as an important health base for the babies, is used in urban areas only up to max. 1 year.  Ladies working in offices don't breastfeed their babies because of the difficulties to practize it during the working hours (they cannot bring their babies with them to the office, they cannot leave the office when it woould be time for breastfeeding, and the babies are also not brought to them to the office). For this important problem a solution should be found.

In rural areas, breastfeeding is used up to 4 years. 

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Actual composition of FAFFA baby food

2.2.9.

The actual composition of FAFFA is:

 

Wheat 57%
Chickpeas 10%
defatted soy 18%
dried skim milk 5%
sugar + iod salt 9%
vitamins, minerals 1%

 

 

Other mixtures used for home-made weaning food

2.2.10.

Where FAFFA is not available, mixtures of barley, wheat, emmer-wheat, sometimes added peas, chickpeas, fanu-greek are used for own preparation of baby food.

 

Import of weaning food consumes foreign exchange per year of about 2 billion 216 million US$!

 

FAFFA production is only 5% of what is sold on the Ethiopian market in total as ready mixed baby food and weaning food. It is sold for about 0.50 to 2 Birr per 500 g. The other 95% are imported, like Cerilac, S 26, Nab, and some others. These are sold for 30 to 40 Birr per 450 g (which creates a considerable and also avoidable need of foreign exchange for it). This information also was given by the Technical % Production Manager of the Ethiopian FAFFA factory to Dr. Johann Georg Schnitzer in February 1992.

The daily import quantity of weaning food therefore is calculated to be 1,425 t. Calculated at a purchase import price of 20 Birr per 450 g package, and calculated the free exchange market price of US$ of about7:1, this are per day 8,866,635 US$ paid by the Ethiopian economy to import weaning food of doubtful health and growth value. Per year this are 2,216,750 (2.216 billion) US$ Ethiopia is losing foreign currency, which could be better used to import technical and high tech products the country cannot produce!

To compare the costs for the import of baby food in relation to others: The last Ethiopian budget before the political change had been about 4.8 billion Birr (or 676 million US$) in total, and within that about 1.2 billion Birr (or 169 million US$) for defence. That means losing foreign exchange in an amount of the complete national budget into 3.28 - for importing baby food.

 

The use of raw, unheated, undenaturated baby food: Forgotten

2.2.11

Use of raw, undenaturated, unheated weaning food is no more known. That means, all weaning food - except some fruits given - is at least denaturated by heat.

 

Health values of weaning food used low or even negative

2.2.12

In general: The health values of the FAFFA types of baby food (and considerable percentage of other preparations used or recommended) have to be considered as rather low or even negative. Due to the oxidation during storage of the flour and e.g. denaturating heat processing in the factory, some longrange heavy degeneration has to be expected.

Also the imported weaning foods, based on milk powder, white refined wheat flour and industrial sugar, are of very doubtful health and nutrition value. Animal experiments with feeding heated, pasteurized, boiled milk or dried milk powder are showing heavy skeleton and organ degeneration of the animals from the second generation on, whilst the animals from the same family produce healthy following generations fed by fresh raw milk. Also refined flour and sugar are having negative effects on metabolism and growth and demineralizing bones and teeth.

 

Already 49% of Ethiopians showing degeneration symptoms

 

As shown by a randomized study, carried out in June 1989 by the author of this study Dr. Johann Georg Schnitzer and Dr. Kurt Gruber in cooperation with the Ethiopian Ministry of Health, already 49% of the Addis Ababa population are showing degeneration symptoms. As one of the causes of such degeneration, oxidized and denaturated cereal products are known.

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3.

Problems in Ethiopia, where the Genebank's collection and expertise could be valuable

3.1

Starvation - lack of cereals

 

How the Genebank could help

 

By its Germplasm collection and expertise the Genebank could take over a key role to maintain and improve the food supply and healthy nutrition of Ethiopian and East African population -

3.1.1.

by determining the amino acid and other health-relevant contents of the germplasms and giving advices which are the best combinations to grow and to prepare healthy and nutritious food;

3.1.2.

by identifying and recommending increased plantation of those high protein value plants which are having high resistance to drought and other marginal soil and climate conditions, and which allow the natural low-input-agriculture without needing chemical fertilizers and pestizides.

 

Erosion

3.2

The light Ethiopian soils are highly sensitive to erosion, which has already destroyed a lot of fertile land. Erosion is continuing by keeping too many animals, which don't allow young trees to grow, and by cutting off the trees for firewood to cook the food. Also, erosion by use of chemical fertilizers is starting, which destroy the natural humus within 4-8 years, so that rains can wash off the land.

 

How the Genebank could help

 

The best prevention of erosion comes from rich living humus, which is absorbing rainwater like a sponge and giving it slowly off to the plants and the ground water. The Genebanks germplasm collection and expertize can help to avoid erosion by -

3.2.1.

recommending those food crops which grow by natural agricultural methods and which increas the humus content of the soils;

3.2.2.

teaching the natural agricultural methods, linke fertilizing by composting and by mixing-in legumes (like lentils, chickpeas, peas) which increase fertility of the soils.

3.3

Lack of foreign currency

 

About 90% of the Ethiopian population are farmers. Even if the 'chemical agriculture' would not destroy the permanent fertility of the soils, the country and the farmers would not be able to import the chemical fertilizers, pestizides and the hybrid seeds, which cannot be multiplied by the farmers, so they must buy each year again the seeds to run such type of agriculture. Also there is already overproduction of such food crops in the world, so that there would be no good chances to export for foreign currency. The lack of foreign currency would only become worse.

 

How the Genebank could help

3.3.1.

The Genebank by its germplasm collection and expertise can provide the farmers with the seeds and the knowledge to run a low-input natural agriculture, which will make the farmers and the country rich, allowing also good export of unpolluted, very healthy food products, which are demanded in the high-civilized polluted countries, and which can be produced from Ethiopian food crop landraces.

3.4.

Genetic erosion

 

A fast erosion of the genetic varieties of traditional food crops is going on in the world. This is heavy and dangerous for the fast growing human population.

 

New food crop varieties: Not proofed in marginal climates

 

Because the new breeded food crop types are not yet proofed to resist marginal climate and other conditions, which have been survived by the traditional landraces in their long evolution history of hundreds, thousands and ten thousands of years.

 

New developed seed varieties: Health risks unknown

 

Also all these newer food crop types - including those developments of the last 150 years like wheat types with increased starch content (to produce more white flour, one of the causes of civilization ailments) and decreased germplasm content - are not yet at all studied on their long range degenerating effects on populations, serving as nutrition base during several generations.

 

Improving health value never was purpose of new varieties

 

Whenever a genetic program of a seed has been changed up to now, e.g. to make it more resistant to a certain insect, or to increase the yield per hectar, or to make it more resistant to temperature below 0° C, never it was checked, not even in animal feeding experiments, and not at all in human experiments, if there are - positive or negative - effects on health constitution, level of immunity to infections, intelligence quotients, reproduction in the next generations.

 

Most heavy degeneration just where the new varieties eaten

 

It is a fact that just those populations, fed by products from those manipulated cereals and other food crops, are showing heavy degenerations and a level of chronic civilization ailments, the costs of which can no more be financed even by the richest countries. In addition, the performance of those populations is decreasing (e.g. by lower supply of glutamic acid, which is important for a good functioning and creativity of the brain, so that their economy is going down. Other populations, having still reserves from a more healthy and natural nutrition are overtaking them.

 

Only traditional landraces proofed bases of healthy people

 

Only the traditional landraces of food crops proofed to be reliable bases for a healthy population and reproduction without degeneration - what can be seen e.g. by the perfect skeleton and teeth status of the former generations of all past historic and prehistoric times of the human populations all over the world.

 

Food processing and preparation also of influence

 

Probably the food processing and preparation methods are also having influences on maintenance of health or creating degeneration. But the fact remains, that the newer and newest food crop seeds and hybrid seeds are not at all proofed to be safe for long range health of populations.

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How the Genebank can help

 

The Genebank can help to protect the populations and keep the future open for healthy food crops and for sufficient supply of the growing world population even under changing and marginal conditions by -

3.4.1.

conserving all landraces and varieties in the Genebank;

3.4.2.

motivating and instructing the farmers to grow in each place the most appropriate varieties and use the most appropriate intercropping methods;

3.4.3.

assisting in marketing efforts to support the permanent production of the varieties;

3.4.4.

protecting the traditional agriculture, by advising and supporting, from high-input and high-tech agricultural monocultures of genetically manipulated, partially even hybrid seeds;

3.4.5.

protecting and improving, by advising and supporting the farmers, the natural lving humus - needed to maintain permanent fertility which allows low-input agriculture - from being displaced by wrong agricultural methods;

3.4.6.

evaluating the best appropriate varieties to produce and prepare healthy baby food, and advice the farmers how to grow it and in which needed quantities.

4.

Data for nationally coordinated program for sufficient and healthy nutrition of Ethiopian population

 

A fast growing population (yearly growth rate 2.9%

4.1.

 

Total Ethiopian population 56,019,330
Population growth 2.9%
Child mortality (1-5 years) 160/100,000 population
Total death rate 8.7/100,000 population
Life expectancy 50.8 years males
53.1 years females

(Source 1984 population census CSA)

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No data about foodstuff quantities, processing, storage

4.2.

About foodstuff quantities, processing, storage, distribution and preparation methods no reliable data are available.

 

No data about deficiencies and malnutrition diseases

4.3.

About nutritional deficiencies and diseases caused by malnutrition, no data are available. It is only known basically, that there are Protein malnutrition, Iodine deficiency disorder, deficiency of vitamin A, and nutritional anaemia.

 

Most important: Protein deficiency

4.4.

Protein malnutrition is the most important deficiency.

What has been done to improve protein supply up to now is (as reported by ENI): Development of weaning food (as described above), nutrition education, establishing nutrition rehabilitation centre, introduction of soybean, supplementary feeding program (multisectoral approach towards alleviating nutrition program), exp<nsion of JNSP experience (district health approach).

 

Suggestions of ENI (Ethiopian Nutrition Institute) to solve the heavy deficiencies

4.5.

Suggestions of ENI to solve the heavy deficiencies are: Development of nutrition-oriented development programs as long term, food supplementation as short term strategy, distribution of iodine capsules, distribution of vitamin A capsules, increased promotion of vitamin-A-rich foods, distribution of iron tablets. (It is not explained in the answer of ENI to the Genebank on our questions, what long term and short term means in detail).

 

Suggestions of ENI can't solve the problem of deficiencies

 

Except the first two, which describe but only general intentions of developing development programs, all others of these suggestions must be criticized, because of leading in the wrong diseases treating direction by distribution of medicaments, instead of improving the natural bases of health by developing and promoting healthy nutrition, which would be the originally appropriate task for a country's nutrition institute.

 

Lack of trace elements - e.g. iodine - by oversupply of nitrate?

 

As known in Europe, goitre by lack of iodine in areas with low iodine content of the soil mostly develop only, when nitrates reach the ground water and come into the drinking water - reducing the relative intake of the already low iodine content.

These nitrates are contents e.g. of chemical fertilizers and also of cow dung or human faeces and urine, which are brought on the meadows and fields as fertilizers (or just infiltrate the soil because of lack of sewerage system). 

Also the food crops will absorb less iodine when fertilized by uncomposted cow dung, urine and other raw uncomposted faeces, or when fertilized by chemical nitrate fertilizers.

This is similar to absorption and intake of the trace element copper. In an example reported by Professor André Voisin (1902-1964), (Paris, professeur d'agriculture), one meadow's soil was having low content of copper. Even then, the cows eating the grass didn't develop the copper-deficiency disease 'meadow-tetanus'. But as soon as nitrate fertilizer was put on the meadow, the disease developed. Because the nitrate salts were relatively reducing (displacing) the intake of copper by the plants.

The solution of the iodine problem is to clean up the agricultural methods used, by returning to natural composting for fertilizing and recycling of faeces, urine and cow dung, and organize a clean water and sewerage system.

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Drug distribution can't replace natural healthy nutrition

 

Also the intake of vitamin A capsules would be expensive and uneffective to provide a total population; but already the daily consumption of some grams of a carot are enough to solve the problem.

As well a distribution of iron tablets would be no good method to reduce iron deficiency. Because as known from the iron therapy of anaemia, the iron destroys insaturated fat acids, so that a deficiency of them develops by giving iron. A better solution would be to teach the people how to manage a balanced natural undenaturated nutrition; this will solve any deficiency of whatever substances known and unknown but essential, without resulting in new side-effects and new other deficiencies.

 

No data about degeneration signs or healthy populations

4.6.

As ENI reports, there are no data available on degeneration signs. Also there are no data where actually the most healthy groups of population are living, and which are their foodstuffs, and their processing, storing and preparation methods.

 

No standard available to measure health or degeneration

4.7.

Also there are no standards of measurement available to determine the health status of the children and adults.

 

Suggestions of ENI for a nationally coordinated program

4.8.

Suggestions of ENI for a nationally coordinated program providing sufficient and healthy nutrition for the country are: The use of conceptual framework and the process of assessment, analysis and action; incorporation of household food security and nutrition goals in development action; human resource development; promotion of community level interventions; development of food and nutrition policies.

 

Current status

 

The current status is, that the Genebank is having a very valuable germplasm collection, knowledge and experience. But to improve utilization of it for a sufficient and healthy nutrition of Ethiopian population, the conceptual framework is not yet developed, the evaluations of health values and analyses of contents of considerable 52,000 germplasm varieties are not yet known, no standards are available to measure health or degeneration, and no data are available about degeneration signs or healthy populations.

So nearly all work relevant to improve utilization of the Genebank's very valuable germplasm collection for a sufficient and healthy nutrition of Ethiopian population still has to be done.

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Part II

Projects Outlines, Recommendations

 

The Terms of Reference of this study ask as well to determine current status, as to develop project outlines.

The current status in the fields of this study is reported and discussed in Part I.

The project outlines are developed and discussed in Part II.

Therefore, the topics of the study are now discussed under aspects of project outlines.

1.

A project outline to identify germplasm material possessing special characteristics of nutritional and health value with particular reference to indigenous landraces or primitive cultivars which constitute the bulk of PGRC/E's germplasm collection

 

Analyzing health-relevant contents of germplasm varieties

 

To utilize the Genebank's germplasm collection for improving a sufficient and healthy nutrition of Ethiopian population, it is necessary to know all health-relevant contents of all germplasm varieties available. Without this knowledge, no practical recommendations can be given..

As an example: Not knowing, which varieties of sorghum have higher contents of the limiting amino-acid lysine, no recommendation can be given, which variety should be cultivated more by the farmers.

It is known, that even the contents of the same variety are different, depending on the quality and humus content of the soil where it was growing.

This means, that each yield again has to be analyzed, and that the soil where the yield has grown as well has to be analyzed.

Also other, negative contents are important to decide about the health value of food seeds and crops. Plant inhibitors and poisons, natural and artificial pollutions.

The data as well will be the raw material to give out recommendations, which varieties should be increased in the next season, and which agricultural methods should be applied to maintain permanent fertility of the soils and high health and nutrition quality of the yields.

The data monitoring system needed to manage the considerable amount of data and allow the necessary conclusions, also should be able to process the data which already now are collected in the Genebank: 52,000 varieties with their dates and places of collection, the times how long they stay germinable, automatical reminding system when which samples should be checked, and when which samples should be regenerated by planting in soil and collecting their seeds again.

 

Laboratory for Analyses

1.1.

An important precondition for the value of each recommendation based on contents of food crop varieties is the reliability of the analyzing methods and results.

If the analyzing methods are not reliable, the contents found out could be wrong, and the recommendations based on them as well would be wrong.

As the recommendations based on the results of analyses are decisive for a sufficient and health of a fast growing population of actually 56 million Ethiopians, who will be 74,5 million after only 10 years, it needs a very effective, modern analyzing laboratory, producing very precise, reliable data of all relevant contents of food crop varieties, yields and soils.

This means, to establish a first class modern analyzing laboratory at the Plant Genetic Resources Centre of Ethiopia.

This Ethiopian Institution, because of its high scientific world class level, actually is becoming more and more important for all Africa, and concerning protection from current genetic erosion, for the world. This gives chance, to offer its services of a first class analyzing laboratory on a payment basis to other Genebanks of Africa and the world. By that, part of the maintenance costs of such a laboratory could be financed by paid analyses.

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Which content of what to analyze?

1.1.1.

Contents of food crop varieties

 

The contents of food crop varieties, important for maintenance of health and therefore to analyze on their qualities and quantities, are:

 

Total protein and essential amino acids

 

The total protein content is important to know, but not enough to classify the protein value for nutrition, which is limited in different food crops by different essential amino-acids, e,g, lysine or methionine or tryptophane. Also the recommendations how to combine different food crops and seeds to optimize the protein value of the nutrition, depends on detailed and reliable knowledge of the contents of each food crop variety and of each yield of it. Because there are considerable differences even in the same variety, depending on the soil and the agricultural method used.

By comparing the total protein content of a nutrition to its content of all essential amino-acids, the biological value (the body-protein-composing percentage) of the total protein can be determined.

Amino-acids in food - including the essential ones - are found as free amino-acids, or connected to other components, or connected as a component to peptides or proteins, Therefore the analyzing methods have to take care that all contents are found, e.g. not only the content of free amino-acids.

The eleven essential amino acids are needed in different percentages to built up human protein. As there are other, non-essential amino-acids as well needed to built up human protein, a similar 'biological value' of the food composition is the best, as it is found in the composition of the human protein itself. The human body protein contains about 47% exogen-essential amino-acids, and about 53% non-essential amino-acids. The food should contain maximum about 45% exogen-essential amino-acids.

The difference comes by needing supply with a 'half-essential' amino-acid, which is glutamic acid, very important for the functioning and performance of the brain. It's content in the total food protein should be about 25%; only the other leftover 30% can be all other non-essential amino-acids.

The protein, half-exogen-essential and exogen-essential amino-acids to analyze in the food crop varieties are:

 

Total protein content

Glutamic acid Methionine
Arginine Thyreonine
Histidine Leucine
Lysine Isoleucine
Tryptophane Valine
Phenylalanine Cystine

 

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Fat acids

 

Saturated fat acids (high contents in animal products) are responsible for several diseases like cardiovascular diseases. One gram of saturated fat needs one gram of protein to metabolize the fat. So the total need of protein depends very much on the total consumption of saturated fat acids.

Unsaturated and high unsaturated fat acids, high contents in the germs of most seeds, are important for oxygen transport into the blood and from the blood into the cells. As well they are important for the perfect function of the membranes of the cells and the receptors in it, and - together with other anti-oxidants like the vitamins C and E - for the protection of the cells from production of dangerous and damaging free radicals (which e.g. can be the reason for developing skin cancer after exposure to ultraviolet light, or for the diseases connected with AIDS).

So the laboratory should be able to analyze quantities and qualities of - native and oxidized -

 

Saturated fat acids

Unsaturated fat acids
High-unsaturated fat acids

 

 

Carbohydrates

 

Carbohydrates, when consumed in their natural composition of complete food seeds and crops, are the most important, most efficient and most healthy supply of energy. The food seeds and other food crops should be analyzed on their contents of:

 

Complex undissolvable carbohydrates (starches)

Dissolvable carbohydrates  =
Disaccharides Monosaccharides

 

 

Fibres

 

The fibre content of nutrition is important for the functions of the intestine, and for a balanced absorption of the nutrients. It protects considerably from intestine cancer. Too much fibres on the other side (for example eating or adding bran instead of eating the naturally balanced wholemeal food, can block the total iron absorption in the intestine, by adsorbing of the iron at the fibres). So there should be analyzed the contents of:

 

Cellulose

Lignine
and other Fibres

 

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Vitamins

 

Not necessary to explain the general importance of analyzing the contents of all vitamins, because well known in science and the public:

 

Vitamins

A Retinole
B1 Thiamine
B2 Complex I Folic Acid
B2 Complex II Niacine, Acid of Nicotinic Acid
B2 Complex III Pantothenic Acid
B2 Complex IV Riboflavine
B6 Pyridoxine
B12 Cobalamine
C Ascorbic Acid, Dehydroascorbic Acid
D Calciferole
E Tocopherole
K1 Phyllochinone, Vitamins of Coagulation
K2 Multiprenylemenachinone
K3 Menadione
H Biotine, Skinfactor Coenzyme R
P Citrine, Vitamin of Permeability

 

It is important to know, that not yet all vitamins are analyzed. So the analyzing methods have to be planned flexible, to adapt when additional vitamins are suspected.

as one example there are publications about a vitamin of fertility; When there is deficiency, degenerations of the next two generations are the consequences, ending up in infertility. When it is available in sufficient quantities, the genetic reproduction normalizes within two generations. When it is given in higher quantities, from the third generation on the fertility is even increased. The vitamin is not yet analyzed.

 

Enzymes

 

The role of enzymes in a health-maintaining nutrition is not yet explored much. But how important enzymes can be, is shown e.g. by the fact that babies are not yet having themselves much enzymes to metabolize complex carbohydrates.

Knowing this deficiency, the pediatric medicine up to now thinks it necessary to give already dissolvable mono- and disaccharides (sugar) to the babies. By that they are making them addicted to sweet taste, and by the permanent sugar supply they put heavy damage on the minerals and carbohydrate metabolism, with consequences like e.g.:

  • deficient mineralization and increased demineralization of the teeth, leading to heavy tooth decay;

  •  deficient osteogenesis and -regeneration, leading to rachitis, osteogenesis imperfecta and osteoporosis of adults;

  • shift of the carbohydrate metabolism from aerobic (oxidative), whose end product is CO2 which is breathed out, to an anaerobic, glycolytic metabolism;

  • by that less utilization of the calories of carbohydrates, increased production of liquid acids like lactic acid and pyruvic or pyroacemic acid, which cannot be breathed out like CO2, therefore accumulate in the organism;

  • by that not only pains in the muscles already after little use of them, but also shift to the anaerobic, glycolytic metabolism of the cancer cells.

But all the enzymes needed by the babies to digest the complex carbohydrates are available in the seeds which contain the complex carbohydrates. Because the seed itself needs them when germinating. Only, in the baby food products up to now, they are not yet there, because either removed (e.g. refined white wheat flour), or denaturated by heating procedure, or oxidized by storage of flour. 

There are methods available to use these native enzymes for healthy baby food preparations. Therefore it is important, to analyze the enzyme types and quantities available in the germplasm varieties. It is important too, to analyze in which stage of germination the enzymes contents are the highest.

So, there should be analyzed the contents of:

 

Deaminidizing enzymes

decarbolizing enzymes
coagulating enzymes
glycolytic enzymes
lipolytic enzymes
proteolytic enzymes
hydrolytic enzymes
oxidating enzymes
reducing enzymes
blocking enzymes
stimulating enzymes
respiratory enzymes
enzyme activators
(trace elements)

 

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Hormones

 

Also the contents of hormones of food crops are not yet analyzed, but important. As one of the hints might serve the content of an insulin-substituting hormone of Topinambur, which saved e.g. diabetic patients during World War II in Germany.

 

Aromatic substances

 

Everybody understands easily that contents of aromatic substances are important for coffee varieties. It is less known, that contents of aromatic substances of the same variety can be different, depending on the agricultural methods used.

Also for a lot of other plants the contents of aromatic substances are important, e.g. for tea, for herbs and spices, and e.g. for vanilla.

But also for the food crops like carrots, tomatoes and fruits like banana, ananas, apples, oranges and a lot of others, the aroma is an essential part of its taste and digestability.

Aromatic substances influence the patability of the food preparations and by that a good and complete digestion and assimilation of the food substances in total.

 

Minerals

 

The importance of minerals is known; but the mineral contents of seeds and food crops are much less known and partially even not yet analyzed. Besides, wrong ideas about the mineral supply exist and wrong advices are given, which can produce heavy disadvantages for the total healthy food supply of a population.

E.g. the meaning, cow milk would be necessary for calcium supply, is wrong and the advice to do so produces lower resistance to virus diseases, and a loss of much agricultural land to feed cows, instead of using it for growing food crops for direct human nutrition, so to feed much more people from the same land.

Mineral elements which should be analyzed are:

 

Natrium

Chloride
Kalium
Calcium
Phosphor
Magnesium
Iron
Iodine

 

 

Trace elements

 

Probably nearly all existing elements are somehow important as trace elements for the functioning of the human organism. Some are needed in such low quantities, that even a complete lack of them only has consequences from the third generation on; it can already be sufficient for life, what the organism of the mother has given over to the embryo.

Without trace elements, most enzymes and most vitamins would not be efficient; they need different trace elements as 'co-enzymes' to work.

Some trace elements can be blocked by other substances. E.g. Selenium, which is very important for the functioning of the immunity and defence of the organism against virus and microbe infections, is blocked by Mercury, the most common surce of which are the amalgam fillings, which most dentists fill into the population's teeth, when those are damaged by refined carbohydrates, especially by disaccharides and monosaccharides (sugars).

Fluoride contents above a very low trace level are poisonous; one of the indicators are 'mottled teeth' (impaired mineralization of the teeth).

The following trace elements should be analyzed: 

 

Zinc

Tin
Nickel
Copper
Mangane
Chromium
Cobalt
Fluoride
Molybdenum
Selenium
Vanadium
Arsenic
Boron
Aluminium
Cadmium

 

 

Inhibitors

 

Inhibitors in seeds or roots mostly are there to protect the seed or root from too early start of the germinating process. Specially some inhibitors of some beans or e.g. soybeans can damage human health, interfering in human metabolism. E.g. trypsine inhibitors in soybeans are the reason why it is difficult to use their high protein value for human nutrition without destroying its total value as a 'side-effect' of destroying the trypsin inhibitors. 'Stone-seeds' as those from plums are using hydro-cyanic acid as inhibitor. The contents of hydro-cyanic acid - different by the varieties - e.g. in Maniok and Ensete - could be one reason for finding Leprosy in one area and in another not. Therefore should be analyzed the contents of:

  • Trypsin inhibitors (e.g. beans varieties, soybeans),

  • Tannin (e.g. sorghum varieties),

  • and others.

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Toxins

 

Toxins can develop by wrong harvesting and storage methods of seeds and other food crops; and the contents of natural elements can become poisoning when the percentage is too high. E.g. the plants absorb too much of heavy metals if the soil's pH is low (= acid, sour) by wrong agricultural methods (anaerobic fowling processes, e.g. by using raw, uncomposted cow dung). The following groups of toxines should be analyzed:

 

 

Organic poisons like

Aflatoxins

Hydrocyanic acid

Anorganic poisons like

Zinc

Tin
Nickel
Copper
Mangane
Chromium
Cobalt
Fluoride
Molybdenum
Selenium
Vanadium
Arsenic
Boron
Aluminium
Cadmium
in unphysiological
concentrations.

 

1.1.2.

All natural and artificial pollutions

 

Ethiopia up to now is relatively free from artificial pollutions, what is a very good condition to produce healthy food.

But the geological young vulcanic ground of most parts of the country, there could be regional higher concentration of elements which could damage human health. One example already is known: There are areas with high content of Fluorine, which dissolves in the water, producing not only a damage of the enamel-producing cells and causing by that 'mottled teeth', but also causing deformation and heavy pains of the bones of the skeleton, and causing an acceleration of senilism and shortening life expectance by nearly 50%. Very probably the food crops absorbing such water and growing in such soils also absorb higher percentages of Fluorine.

The considerable morbidity of endemic goiter in several areas of Ethiopia could be caused by accumulation of nitrate by animal breeding, causing a relative deficiency of iodine.

so there should be analyzed the contents of:

 

Nitrite

Nitrate and other
Chemical fertilizers
Pestizides as
Insectizides,
Herbizides;
Hormons
Fluoride
Mercury
Cadmium
Lead (Plumbum)

 

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1.1.3.

Radioactivity and radioactive elements

 

By natural radioactivity and much more by atomic explosive experiments, atomic power plants and their reactor accidents, their increasing radioactive wastes, and use of radioactive substances in medical experiments and treatments, the pollution of food resources of mankind is increasing and becoming a property which can be decisif for utility or danger for health of food crops and foodstuffs. Therefore an integrated analyzing of food crops cannot exclude radioactivity and contents of radioactive elements:

The total radiation per kg baby food shouldn't exceed 100 Bequerel, per kg food for adolescents and adults 300 Bequerel (Japanese limits).

European limits for Caesium 137, established 1987 after the Tschernobbyl accident, were (compulsory - otherwise no more food at all available) higher: 400 (later reduced to 370) Bequerel per kg baby food, 1000 (later reduced to 600) Bequerel per kg milk products, 1250 (later reduced to 600) Bequerel per kg of other food products

Radioactive elements, contents of which in food and food crops should be analyzed, are:

 

H 3 C 14 Ca 137
Pm 147 P 32 S 35
Cr 51 Co 60 Ga 67
Kr 85 Y 90 Mo 99
I 125 I 131 Xe 133
Yb 169 Ir 192 AU 198
Tl 201 Am 241 Pb 201
Hg 195 Hg 197 Cm 244
Cs 137 Po 210 Uranium
Plutonium Thorium  

 

 
1.1.4.

Analyses of composition and contents of the soils

 

The contents of food crops are not only depending on their genetic variety. The contents of even the same variety depends very much on the composition and contents of the soil where the variety is grown.

To come to know the full variation range of the contents of each variety, is an important precondition to know the real health and nutrition value of each variety. Only then it is possible to compare the true different health and nutrition values of all varieties.

The real health and nutrition value of each variety can only be found out by:

  • knowing the qualities of the different soils where the samples had been grown;

  • finding out the optimal soil qualities for each variety on which it produces its highest nutritional and health values;

  • comparing all varieties concerning their nutritional and health values under the same conditions, means each growing on its special optimal quality soil.

Only to compare just accidentally produced contents of varieties, without knowing the different compositions and contents of the soils where they were grown, would produce wrong results and would not be proper scientific work.

To show by example the variation of contents of food crops depending on the type of soil and agricultural method used: The biological protein of wheat can vary between 20.7 and 48, depending on the agricultural method used!

The analyses of the soils, compared with the varying contents of the seeds and food crops, will allow to optimize more and more the agricultural methods, to get the most healthy and richest food production under condition of maintenance and increasing a permanent natural fertility.

This will be of existential importance not only for permanent health of the Ethiopian population, but also of the populations of all Africa and of all the world.

In detail the soils should be analyzed on (by):

  • pH;

  • General composition of elements, minerals and trace elements;

  • Measuring the thickness of the humus layer;

  • Determining total amount of organic substance per square meter;

  • Analyzing the quantitative contents of amino acids, carbohydrates, types of fat acids, vitamins, hormones and enzymes of the organic part of the humus per square meter of the soils of plantation;

  • counting and classifying the aerobic and anaerobic soil bacteria per cm³, and calculating their proportions;

  • counting and classifying the micro-fauna in the soil;

  • counting and classifying the insect population of the plantation place;

  • analyzing the natural and artificial pollutions of the soils.

Most of these analyses can be made by the laboratory equipments needed already for analyzing the seeds and other food crops.

For part of it, good microscopic facilities are needed.

To develop on the lifespan of seeds stored in germinable status at the Genebank, and to develop storability of germplasm material of plant types the seeds of which cannot be kept long, like coffee seeds, by storing lyophilisized living plant cells, the Genebank needs complete equipment for lyophilisation (vacuum deepfreeze drying methods, used e.g. for long range storage of bull sperms and for artificial insemination).

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1.2.

Animal feeding laboratory
for control of health and nutrition values of food seeds and food crop varieties and their soils

 

For evaluation of the long range health and nutrition value of food seeds and crops, analyses are important, but not sufficient. Because not all health-relevant substances are known and analyzed, and even the synergetic effects of the known and analyzed ones are mostly unknown.

The analyses can give some basic information to calculate and plan roughly a balanced nutrition; but even this works only out, when the nutrition composed after that is not composed by the refined known components, but by the natural, unrefined, undenaturated, living original foodstuffs.

What happens, when all known analyzed refined food substances including vitamins, minerals and trace elements are given, was found out by BERNASEK: The laboratory animals get sick, aggressive, eat partially their own children and degenerate; at about the third generation they become unfertile.  The same type control animals, fed only by wheat seeds and leafs of kohlrabi, stay completely healthy, with happy and peaceful behaviour, and produce for unlimited generations healthy kids (offspring).

To control the long range health values of food compositions, food seeds and food crops by controlling health status, morbidity and mortality of a human population takes very long time, and the correcting measures will be slow and late.

Most ailments caused by malnutrition or pollution need at least 20 years of silent, unremarkable incubation time, until a statistically relevant increase can be identified. Among those ailments are the leading killer diseases: Cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer.

Shorter incubation times have dental caries and diseases of the gingiva (6 months to about 10 years).

But malposition of teeth as an important sign of degeneration can only be remarked in the next generation, when already a heavy loss of preconditions of health has occured; and the corrections need another two generations to repair hte damage.

Certain short range conclusions can be made by measuring the growing rates of babies and children; within 3-4 years different results under different conditions can be obtained.

But for a short range efficient control system biological data from animal feeding experiments are indispensable.

The most appropriate type are young growing laboratory rats, which are breeded under certain conditions. Then they are taken into the experiments from a weight of 50 grams on. Their growing rates and their health status and morbidity allow conclusions on the health status and morbidity which can be expected for the population under the same nutrition.

As a life span of a laboratory rat of 3 years is corresponding to a human life span of about 80 years, in a short experimental time long range conclusions for human health are possible.

Therefore, as a next step after establishing the analyses laboratory and data monitoring system, an animal feeding laboratory should be established, using the scientific experience and knowledge already collected in this field during the last 70 years, mostly in Germany.

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1.3.

Computer monitoring system
for control of the bulk of PGRC/E's germplasm collection and data processing of its properties

1.3.1

Introduction

 

In order to promote the goal of a sufficient and healthy nutrition for the countrym a database containing relevant data about the accessions of the Genebank should be established. A very careful design of this data base is necessary, as it has to be flexible, with an open architecture, adaptable to new requirements based on results of previous investigations and experiments. The addition of new analyses must be possible at any time, so new evaluation or simulation programs can be added easily. The following paragraphs discuss some of the ideas on the implementation and structure of such a database.

1.3.2.

Implementation strategy

 

The following estimate gives an indication that a carefully planned implementation strategy is absolutely necessary in order to keep the project realistic and with a well structured data base.

If for instance, for all the species stored at the Genebank, all the analytical measurements mentioned in 1.1. would be carried out every year, approximately 15 million analytical results would be determined each year, costing around 200 to 300 million US$. This is equivalent to a workload of 50 to 100 typical medium-sized industrial chemistry laboratories.

Therefore it is mandatory that a proper strategy is chosen considering

  1. Selection of representative samples;

  2. selection of most important analytical measurements;

  3. sort out any dependencies which do not need measurements on many samples /e.g. dependency of nutritional value of crop on agricultural methods) as these can be determined in specific research projects.

The following classification should be used as a guideline to determine which measurements should be carried out on which samples:

  1. Qualities which should be determined for all samples (e.g. germination capability);

  2. Qualities which should be determined for species which are cultivated in amounts relevant to the supply for the country (e.g. amino-acids cibtebt);

  3. Research results which may include many specific investigations on only a few carefully selected samples (e.g. correlation between agricultural methods and soil and food quality).

 

Suggestion for a time schedule

 

In an initial phase we recommend to determine some of the most important results for the predominant species in the country (category B in classification above). These then can be used to improve the health quality of food in an early stage of the project. This could be done in external laboratories before establishing equipment at the Genebank. Based on the preliminary results, procurement of equipment for the Genebank could be optimized. Furthermore, based on these results, the data base structure could be adapted according th insights gained in the first phase.

 

How to proceed basically

 

The next step in the project should always give a useful result relevant to the overall project goal (sufficient healthy nutrition for the country) at minimum cost. Good examples for this are the development of health-optimized enjera and healthy natural baby food in this report.

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1.3.3.

Computer equipment

 

Necessary is:

A multi-user system with

  • data base software,

  • statistical software,

and programs for the specific routine tasks, like

  • laboratory sample and results management,

  • data entry,

  • management of accessions,

  • work load planning for laboratory,

  • food synthesis by simulation.

A highly important aspect is an easy to use query system for data base access. In addition, statistical evaluations of information must be supported in a user-friendly way.

Standard interfaces for data exchange with other programs are a necessity, e.g. to

  • spreadsheet calculation,

  • other databases,

  • other statistical packages,

  • simulation systems.

1.3.4.

Data bases

 

The list of the following databases is a preliminery suggestion for some typical databases which might be useful for the project goal:

  • Overall parameters:
    names of species,
    identification,
    characteristics of analytical results,
    identification of soil types,

  • Storage and germination data on Genebank's accessions,

  • Analytical contents of most important germplasms,

  • Results of animal experiments for most important germplasms,

  • Results of biophoton activity determination of germplasm in relation to analytical results and animal experiment results,

  • Health quality of food as a function of soil quality,

  • Soil quality dependency on agricultural methods,

  • Soil quality in selected areas,

  • Water quality in selected areas,

  • Pollution in selected areas,

  • Radioactivity data of selected areas.

For detailed planning of needed hardware and software, a feasability study should be done.

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1.4.

Planning of Analyses and animal feeding laboratory, integration of the computer monitoring system

1.4.1.

Planning of the Analyses Laboratory

 

The practical planning could be started by working over the list of substances to to analyze. Perhaps some of them still are lacking, e.g. some of the polluting chemical substances, or some natural substances which are found to be important to know their contents in food crops or in soil. The result would be a list I of substances to analyze.

Then a list II of analyzing equipments could be made, covering all analytical methods needed to analyze all substances of list I.

The third measure could determine the quantities per year, month, week, day, of the different analyses. By that the needed capacity of the different equipments could be determined.

This information would allow to plan the totally needed equipments, the laboratory rooms and the qualifications and number of staff needed.

1.4.2.

Planning of the animal feeding laboratory

 

To begin with it should be determined the types of laboratory animals. Most experiments can be done with laboratory rats of certain varieties, and breed and pre-fed in certain determined conditions. For some, For some, rabbits are the most appropriate (influence of conditions on the development of the embryos).

The next would be to determine, how many animals should be taken for one experiment, to bring significant results under scientific biometrical conditions.

Then the average endurance of the experiments should be determined, taking into consideration the life spans of the animal types, the generation time, and the number of generations needed to find out long range generations effects of determined experimental conditions.

Also the methods of keeping the animals under determined conditions should be documented, and the space needed per animal or family or group of animals.

After that the needed rooms, room conditions, number and qualification of staff can be determined.

1.4.3.

Planning of integration of the computer monitoring system

 

The planning of the computer monitoring system depends on these other plannings, because the observations and results of all analyses and animal experiments should be documented in the monitoring system, and also be processed. E.g. it should be possible to compare results, and work out statistics, to find out significant trends and tendencies. Also the control of the data of the complete germplasm bulk of the Genebank should be possible, including results of germinating experiments, and an automatical reminding system when seed samples stored should be regenerated.

After analyzing this, the total computer capacity as well as the places at which laboratory and offices to put terminals of the computer monitoring system can be planned, and also the number and qualifications of staff needed.. Most of the terminals would stand in the laboratories, and the laboratory staff would work with it; one head of computer department for controlling them and for doing computer analyses, statistics and organization of the programs should be planned.

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2.

A project outline to develop special food resources of importance in Primary Health Care

 

There would be several important special food resources of importance in Primary Health care, which should be developed. Here we concentrate on two food resources, the biological qualities of which are important to maintain health and prevent diseases and degeneration in Ethiopia: The Ethiopian bread enjera, and the baby food.

In Part I the doubtful biological qualities of both at present are explained and commented. Now we will show how their biological qualities can be improved and optimized.

2.1.1.

Develop health-improved enjera mixtures and preparations

 

To improve enjera mixtures and preparation methods can increase its health values much. Enjera is eaten each day several times in considerable quantities by all Ethiopians. It is the main foodstuff, by which cereals are contributing to Ethiopian nutrition. The right use and preparation of cereals is the most important part of a healthy nutrition.

These are some of the reasons why improving health values of enjera will have an important positive influence in Primary Health Care.

 

Improve nutrition value of seed mixtures

 

T'eff is mostly used as the cereal to make enjera, so far it is available. But as we have seen, t'eff is not the seed with the highest health value. Its advantage is, that it is growing even under marginal climate and soil conditions. Other seeds like e.g. barley are having higher values. More health value and nutrition values than each single seed or cereals can be obtained by mixtures of different seeds with different properties and different limiting amino-acids.

One effectful step to improve the nutrition and health value of enjera therefore is to develop mixtures of seeds for enjera. The aspects for experiments should be:

  • Availability of the cereals by Ethiopian production,

  • good biological value of the protein mixture,

  • balanced mixture of other relevant components,

  • agreable structure of the enjera for practical use,

  • good taste of the enjera,

  • appetizing appearance.

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Fresh grinding promotion

 

The complete health and nutrition values of the cereals used to prepare enjera are only available when the flour is freshly ground when preparing the dough.

Therefore promotion of fresh grinding is another important part of contribution to Primary Health Care, by improving the contents of health maintaining properties of seeds in the enjera.

 

Health-value maintaining enjera flour mixtures

 

There is no health value in normally produced and stored flours and flour mixtures for enjera, because of fast oxidation and catabolic enzyme reactions after grinding.

Only by certain high-technological, sophisticated processing and storing methods, ready-for-use enjera flour mixtures could be produced, stored, sold, again stored in the house, and then be available without losses of health value to prepare the enjera dough.

Basically it would be possible to develop an industrial production of health value maintaining, optimized enjera flour mixtures. This would improve the healthy and sufficient food supply in Ethiopia considerably, and would create a number of working places for jobless young Ethiopians.

 

Health-modified fermentation process

 

Even when most health values of the seeds are protected up to the moment of dough preparation, still most of it can get lost by the fermentation process, which can destroy up to 75% of the original health values.

To maintain the sour taste on one side, it is recommendable to ferment only about 25% of the enjera flour for about 6-12 (maximum 24) hours. After that, the other 75% of the - again freshly ground, therefore all health values containing - flour and an appropriate quantity of water should be added and mixed to the final dough. After only 1-2 hours fermentation the enjera should be baked.

By this procedure, the health value (e.g. the growing and cell regenerating effect) of such enjera should be increase by about 300%, compared to the procedure used now.

 

Possible: Professionally produced, packed, sterilized, storable high health value enjera

 

Basically it would be possible to develop - on a higher class bakery or factory level - the professional production of enjera from high health value cereal mixtures and by health value maintaining processing. Immediately after baking and still at the baking heat it can be packed in sterile way without loosing any of its health value or freshness during several weeks.

For realization it would be necessary to develop the industrial procedures as well as the health value maintaining total processing and production equipment, the packing and the marketing of the product.

Especially in the urban population such high quality ready-made enjera could find - as a convenient product - a good market.

 

Animal feeding experiments for evaluation

 

To optimize the health values of the seed mixtures and the fermentation process, animal feeding experiments are necessary.

The experiments could be carried out at the Animal Feeding Laboratory for Health and Nutrition Values, which is recommended to establish at the Genebank.

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2.1.2

Immediate practical result of this project: Health-improved enjera processing principles

 

When staying in Ethiopia for the investigations of this project, Dr. Johann Georg Schnitzer wanted to reach already one practical progress in this important matter of enjera.

After discussing this intention with Dr. Melaku Worede, Director of the Genebank, he found out, that similar methods already were known in some Amharic populations, who prepare such enjera for pregnant women and for people having gastrite. So it was already known, that these methods are better for health, even to cure diseases, and better for a normal healthy development of the embryo. But this knowledge has been forgotten by the bigger part of the population.

To start a first practical experiment, Dr. Schnitzer and Mr. Regassa Feyissa (Head, Conservation and Further Evaluation Department of Genebank), contacted the ENI (Ethiopian Nutrition Institute), asking for assistance. This but didn't work out, because of several different difficulties there.

So they decided to do the experiment by support of the staff of the Genebank. Mrs. Almaz Negash (Research Officer of the Genebank) took it over.

First it was discussed, which mixture of cereals available in considerable quantities in Ethiopia could give an optimized biological protein value. The following was recommended as an optimal mixture:

 

Experimental enjera cereal mixture

Barley 150 g
Wheat 100 g
Sorghum 100 g
T'eff 150 g


25% of the mixture were ground freshly, mixed with the sourdough starter (= a cup of enjera dough kept from last time making enjera; if not available, yeast) and water and left over night for fermentation.

The other morning, the other 75% of the mixture were ground and added to the fermenting one. Body-warm water was used to mix both and to make the dough ready for baking after another 1-2 hours.

The baked enjera was tested by several people in the Genebank and various comments were given.

The comments given were:

  1. 'The enjera is very tasty as compared to the one we are used to, which is totally fermented for more than three days.'

  2. 'The "eyes" are not fully seen, so it requires further fermentation.'

  3. 'The combinations are good but the proportion needs to be adjusted because the taste is more of barley and as well the flour needs to be sieved.'

  4. 'It might be difficult for the society to adapt this recipes especially the urban dwellers who (most of them) only eat t'eff enjera. But, on the other hand, in the rural areas where all are used to eat barley alone, or barley mixed with wheat or sorghum, t'eff mixed with sorghum or etc., it is simple to make it practical.'

These first practical results are already proofing that basically this important health value improvement of the basic foodstuff enjera can be realized.

The 'eyes', which were less in the experiment and which are the open bubbles of the fermentation gas,  are having a practical purpose: Like very little 'spoons' they shall carry the liquid part of the 'wot' (sauce) and other foods taken and brought into the mouth by the enjera.

By further experiments those 'eyes' could be increased either by modified processing - e.g. using the natural enjera sourdough starter instead of yeast, controlling the temperatures during the fermenting process. Only the fermenting times should not be expanded because of the loss of health values.

The flours used for the experiment were a bit coarse, because the mill used was not optimal for the purpose. But to sieve the flour would not be good, because of sieving out just the most health-important (more coarse) parts like the germ embryo or the outer layers of the seeds containing most of the minerals and trace elements. There are mills grinding the complete cereals to very fine wholemeal flour; those should be used for grinding the flours for enjera.

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2.1.3.

Healthy enjera pamphlet with instructions, to distribute
to print it click here: pamphlet_nutrition_and_health.pdf
(print quality optimized for Adobe Reader)

 

Already by the knowledge available at present and the practical experiences made by the first experiment, the following pamphlet with simple but effectful advices can be developed. It can be translated into Amharic and the other Ethiopian languages, printed and distributed by the Mother and Child Health Service stations.

The text in English for this pamphlet:

Healthy Enjera for Healthy Family

For health, optimal growth of children and cell regeneration of adults, cereals and seeds are the most important foodstuffs. Enjera is the most important cereal food in Ethiopian nutrition. Therefore it is important, to avoid any unnecessary losses of health-, growth- and regeneration-values of the original cereals used to prepare enjera. The highest health value of enjera is reachted by following up these advices:

  1. Use only germinable, living cereals, preferably traditional landraces, grown on natural soil without chemical fertilizers and without fouling raw animal dung (aerobically rotted = composted under access of air allowed). This means highest health values and lowest pollution.

  2. Use mixtures of seeds like t'eff, sorghum, barley, wheat, emmerwheat, millet and others. The health value of any mixture is higher than using one cereal alone.

  3. Grind cereals always freshly yourself (on stones or stone grinder) at the moment you need the flour. Also grind only the quantity you need at that moment. Never keep or store flour. It would loose most health values within some hours after grinding. Food made from stored flour only 2 weeks old causes heavy degeneration of the next two generations (children and grandchildren). Exception: Specially health-value-maintaining processed and packed wholemeal flours and flour mixtures, but which are not yet available in the market.

  4. For fermenting (to give the usual sour taste and develop the enjera 'eyes'), first grind only one quarter (25%) of the cereal mixture quantity you want to take in total, add water and the before from last time stored fermenting enjera sourdough culture (starter), mix it completely and make it fermenting over night at a warm place (dough temperature 26-30° C).

  5. To make the final dough, grind freshly the other three quarters (75%) of the cereal mixture, add lukewarm (30° C) water and the fresh flour to the fermented dough, mix it thoroughly, let it ferment for about another 1-2 hours and without any further delay bake the enjera.

By this two-step dough procedure, most of the original health value of the cereals are saved into the enjera and can reach the human body, serving as health-maintaining food for your family.

If the complete dough would be fermented for only 24 hours, it would loose three quarters (75%) of the health values even of the freshly ground cereals. Diseases, reduced immunity to infections and degeneration of the next two generations could be the consequences.

To complete the biological health and protein value of this enjera, the best wot is a fresh, uncooked, raw one, freshly made from germinated and smashed lentils, chickpease, peas, smashed raw tomatoes and spiced by some drops of lemon juice, salt, pepper and other spices.

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2.2.1

Develop health-improved baby food mixtures and preparations

 

The physical and mental performance capacities, the energy and intelligence level, and last not least the health and beauty of the generations during their full lifespan are decisive for their biological and economical existance and success of a population.

To reach this, requires in detail:

  • Optimal percentage of realization of the genetic information given by the parents' sperm and ovo;

  • optimal general development and growth of the embryo and the child until adult age;

  • pütomal health maintenance and cell regeneration during complete lifespan of the adult.

To reach this, requires the following conditions in detail:

  • A balanced metabolism homeostasis,

  • availability of all needed biological substances and nutrients,

  • absence of drugs and poisons and of their damages,

- given in the following human life periods:

  • of both parents when fecundating the obo (that means practically at any time when there is possibility that it could happen);

  • of the mother during the complete pregnancy (most important the first days and first weeks up to 3 months!);

  • of the mother during breastfeeding period (quality of mother's milk depending on it);

  • of the child during complete growing period (up to adult age);

  • of the adult human individual during all life to allow permanent cell regeneration, health maintenance and reproduction of a next generation of the same optimal biological qualities.

One of the most decisive human periods is the time from birth until the child can eat all what the adults eat. Latest from age of 4 months on, weaning food (baby food) must be given regularly for a complete nutrition of the baby.

If during this period no good baby food is available, the baby cannot develop properly. E.g. during the first 24 months a baby can grow about 28 cm, if the food quality and supply allows this. If not or not sufficient, the missed centimeters of growth later cannot be compensated; the later adult person will be shorter than the genetic program would have allowed.

Also the resistance against children's infectious diseases - and if infected the response of the immune system to cure it and develop immunity - will be lower, and by that children's mortality will be higher, when there is deficiency of good weaning food.

These are some of the reasons, why the availability of good and healthy weaning food (baby food) is very important for health of population.

But there are other periods in the development of a new human being, which are of the same or even higher importance. Especially metabolic conditions around the period of fecundation, to allow ovo and sperms to develop perfectly without deficiencies and without influences of drugs, alcohol or other poisons, and after fecundation the first 12 weeks with its very dynamic development of the embryo, are decisive for all life of the new human being, decisive e.g. for

  • the number of brain cells;

  • the number of muscle cells;

  • the proper construction of the skeleton:

  • the proper opto-geometric construction of the eyes system;

  • the proper geometric construction of the dentition and each tooth;

  • the proportional harmony of the complete body, what means for the beauty of the new human individuum.

About all that the decisions for life of a human being are already made during the first 12 weeks of a pregnancy - a time, when the young mother perhaps even not yet knows or not yet is sure to be pregnant, or when, even tries to get rid of the baby by different experiments of abortion, and in case of no success damaging heavily the development of the embryo.

When the young mothers realize fully to be pregnant, which happens mostly after those decisive 12 weeks, it is already too late; most of the decisions for life of a new human being are already made.

At present, the weaning (baby) food situation in Ethiopia is not good, because of the reasons mentioned in Part I.

To improve the situation and reach an optimal supply of the Ethiopian babies and children whith healthy baby food, the following steps are recommended.

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Improve growth, protein and nutrition values of seed mixtures for baby food

 

Seeds and cereals are the only foodstuffs containing the indispensable growth factors needed for any growth, cell division and cell regeneration of higher organisms including the human one. These growth factors are more than only a matter of protein. But the availability of enough native, undenaturated protein of sufficient biological value is one of the growth factors.

The best protein supply is not given by animal protein - this was an error of science, not taking into consideration the high glutamic-acid need of the brain, which can be better satisfied by plant protein combinations.

To express it clearly: There is not any need for animal milk components in baby food.

Animal milk even has some disadvantages, like lower resistance of the babies and children fed with it against virus and microbe infections and against chronic lymphatic diseases, e.g. chronic swollen lymphatic nods, chronic tonsillitis, and chronic rhinorrhea. All these symptoms can be found very common in Ethiopian babies and children, in rural areas as well as in urban ones!

To reach a high biological protein value of plant protein mixtures, the following is necessary to know:

Most of the cereal proteins are limited by low content of the amino-acid lysine.

On the other side most legumes (like lentils, chickpeas, peas) (appropriate for baby food e.g. chickpeas, peas, lentils, mung beans) are limited by low content of the amino-acid tryptophane. But most cereals are rich just in tryptophane.

So, already any roughly composed mixture of any cereals with any legumes are having a biological protein value similar to the one of cow milk, but without the disadvantages of cow milk and with the big advantage of a higher supply of the brain functions and development with glutamic acid.

Such mixtures of cereals with legumes (like lentils, chickpeas, peas) can be optimized by calculations of their combined biological protein value, when knowing their genetically programmed and actual yields contents of each of the essential amino-acids. The calculations can be supported by special computer programs.

To refute in advance the last old leftover counter-argument, used to defend the 'need of animal food theory', which claims that the vitamin B12 (cobolamine) would only be in animal food products: Meanwhile the vitamin B12 could be found in seeds and other plant parts; e.g. parsley is even rich in B12; and the best: Most of the vitamin B12 is produced by a healthy intestine bacteria flora (saprophytes) inside the human intestinal tract.

This explains e.g., why in 'vegans' never a deficiency of vitamin B12 could be found, but at the same time a considerably better health, fitness and vitality, and less cardiovascular diseases and less cancer, than in people eating both, animal and plant food products.

'Vegans' are people who are not eating any animal food products, as distinguished from 'vegetariens', who are only not eating products from killed animals, but eat products from living animals like milk, eggs, cheese, butter etc.

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Fresh grinding and germinating promotion

 

The important growth factors and biological values of the seeds are only preserved in the living, germinable seed. As soon as a seed is ground, a fast oxidation and other catalytic processes develop under normal conditions.

These are the reasons, why fresh grinding of any seeds and cereals and only of the quantity needed at the moment for a fresh preparation has to be promoted intensively. This also makes sure that the enzymes of the seeds, which the baby needs to metabolize complex carbohydrates, are preserved in the baby food mixtures (except when after grinding destroyed by boiling, which should be avoided).

For the legumes (like lentils, chickpeas, peas) - and even for a part of the cereal components - the best preparation is the germinating process. The best germination os obtained by humidity, so that the seeds are getting as well water as air and oxygen. (Not so good would be a common Ethiopian method to put the seeds for more than 3-5 first hours under water; this would produce lack of oxygen for the fast developing seeds and an unwanted start of anaerobic fermentation processes in this water). The best and most simple method is described in the information pamphlet.

The germination process increases the contents of enzymes much. This makes the baby food preparation more easy to digest and assimilate for the baby.

At the same time, the germination inhibitors become deactivated by the germinating process.

Even it is known, that the trypsin inhibitors of the soybeans are deactivated by germination (so the heat process used in the FAFFA production, which destroys all growth and cell regenerating factors, could be avoided).

But, until the special inhibitor problems of the different varieties of beans are more cleared up by scientific studies, we recommend not to use beans (except in already proven ways), although their protein value is high.

To clarify this, is one special research task for the proposed Genebank's analyses laboratory, with high importance for improved evaluation and utilization of the Genebank's germplasm collection.

Some research in this special field of beans and its inhibitors has been made several years ago by the Egyptian Nutrition Institute. Also it is known, that in the population of Egypt more people are having deficiency of a certain enzyme, which allows the human organism to deactivate the inhibitors. By that deficiency, in Egypt more people can be affected by the inhibitors of beans than e.g. in the European population. Even in the old Egypt, thousands of years ago, beans were considered to be plants of death; priests were not allowed to look at them, the always had to turn their back to bean plants.

As it already has been found out by the Genebank, germinating seeds have a certain maximum of enzyme content during the germinating process. This knowledge should be extended by detailed laboratory analyses and animal feeding experiments, and be used to optimize the recommendations for healthy nutrition.

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Modified healthy fresh uncooked preparation process

 

All these carefully done preparations would be without any use, if now the baby food made from  would be boiled. The enzymes, which help the baby to digest and metabolize, would be destroyed. The native protein, needed to built up the protein of the fast growing body of the child, would be denatured by the heat. The growth factors, allowing a normal growth of the child, would be reduced to about half of the original content.

Only the fresh, raw, uncooked preparation preserves all original biological values of the seeds. It is clear, that clean water, clean plates and spoons and clean working and preparation process are preconditions; but this would be the same when using the conventional denatured baby food types.

In practical, the first step is to wash the legumes (like lentils, chickpeas, peas) and those cereals which shall be germinated in cold fresh water, and after that to put them to germinate.. This can be done in every covered bowl or glass. Cold fresh water is given to the seeds for some minutes and then poured out, covering the bowl or glass. After every 3-5 hours the process is repeated. The longer pause during the night doesn't matter. Depending on the temperature and climate, the optimal germination status - length of the germs about 3-5 mm - is reached.

Those who own a refrigerator, can keep (in about 4° C) the germinating seeds nearly at this same optimal status for one week, washing them once per day by cold water, taking the quantity needed and putting the others - in the covered bowl or glass - back into the refrigerator.

Who doesn't have a refrigerator, should each day prepare a small new portion of seeds to germinate.

When germinated seeds are available, the fresh baby food can be prepared:

About a handful of cereals are freshly ground to fine flour, mixed with some water, added some drops of lemon juice to protect the growth factors from oxidation.

Another handful of germinated seeds is taken and smashed in a mortar. Immediately both mixtures are put together and mixed.

Now,, basically there are two different possibilities of preparation: A 'salty taste' one and a 'sweet taste' one. Important to know, that babies' sense of taste is much more sensitive than in adults. So the taste of the food must be much less 'salty' or 'sweet'.  For 'salty taste' it is enough to add the small amount of salt which can be kept between two fingers. For 'sweet taste' always the sweetness of natural fresh fruits is sufficient; never sugar and even no honey honey should be used, not to make the child addicted to sugar (danger of diseases and tooth decay).

'Salty-taste' healthy baby food: Part of a fresh carrot is taken and ground or smashed fine and immediately mixed, before it oxidizes, with the basic mixture of freshly ground cereals, freshly smashed germinated seeds, some drops of lemon juice and water. Immediately after preparation, the food is given to the baby by a clean spoon. Leftover shall not be kept; it can be given to other children or adults.

'Sweet taste' healthy baby food: Half of a banana is smashed and immediately (before it oxidizes) mixed with the basic mixture of freshly ground cereals, freshly smashed germinated seeds, some drops of lemon juice and water. Immediately after preparation, the food is given to the baby by a clean spoon. Leftover shall not be kept; it can be given to other children or adults.

The quantities and frequencies to give such foods to the baby depend on appetite, age, contribution of breastfeeding and other healthy food eaten.

Basically not only babies, but each human being of any age group should at least once per day get such a healthy meal, to allow growth and/or cell regeneration, to stay healthy and strong, and to protect from diseases and degeneration.

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2.2.2.

Immediate practical result of this project: Health-improved baby food processing principles

 

During the investigations for this project in Ethiopia, Dr. Johann Georg Schnitzer wanted to reach another practical progress by improving the health value of baby food, in addition to the first step health improvement of enjera.

To start a practical experiment, Dr. Schnitzer and Mr. Regassa Feyissa (Head of Conservation and Further Evaluation Department of Genebank) asked the ENI (Ethiopian Nutrition Institute) for assistance. This but didn't work out, because of several different difficulties there.

So they decided to do this experiment also, like before the enjera experiment, by support of the staff of the Genebank. Again Mrs. Almaz Negash (Research Officer of the Genebank) took it over, now supported by Mrs Beyenech Wossene, Laboratory Assistant at the Genebank.

First it was discussed, which mixture of cereals and legumes (like lentils, chickpeas, peas), availlable in considerable quantities in Ethiopia, could give an optimized biological protein and growth value. These recommended components of mixture came out:

 

Components to prepare healthy baby food mixtures

Seeds to germinate. Chickpeas,
lentils
peas
naked barley
wheat
Non-germinated cereals to grind: naked barley
wheat
naked oats
sorghum
Vegetables and fruits: carrot
banana
lemon (some drops)


Dr. Melaku Worede (Director of the Genebank) remarked, that without any doubt the health and nutritious value of the preparations must be extraordinarily high; the only question left over would be, if the babies would accept and eat it.

The two fresh sample mixtures were taken to the home of Mrs. Beyenesch Wossene, to her 7 months old child Daniel Agize. He was chosen as the first testing baby for the new healthy type of baby food.

For testing, first the 'salty-taste' type of recipe was given (prepared with smashed carrot and a very small pinch of salt).

The child, fed by the mother as usual, was accepting it from the first spoon on without any second of hesitating or surprise reactions - as if already used to it, and never would have had before anything else or anything better.

Changing to the other, #sweet-taste' type of preparation with banana, the same result: The child was again accepting it from the first spoon on, without any second of hesitating or surprise reaction.

The child didn't stop to eat even after a considerable total quantity of both types.

The samples then also were given to five other children with ages ranging from four to seven years.

Their comments - given with smiles from one ear to the other - all were saying, that both types are tasty: as a matter of preference they preferred the one with the banana.

The hours and days after the experiment, everything with the baby Daniel, including his wellbeing and his intestine functions, was completely normal.

This first practical experiment already gives a general orientation, that such optimal healthy natural baby food is accepted and digested without any difficulty, and that a change to it can be done without any delay.

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2.2.3.

Healthy baby food pamphlet with instructions to distribute

to print it click here: pamphlet_nutrition_and_health.pdf
(print quality optimized for Adobe Reader)

 

Similar to the health improvement of enjera, already by the knowledge available at present and the practical experiences made by the first experiment, the following pamphlet with simple but very effective advices could be developed. It can be translated into Amharic and the other local languages, printed and distributed by the Mother and Child Health Service stations.

Healthy Baby Food for Healthy Children
Healthy Genetic Reproduction and Cell Regeneration Food 
For Healthy Family

After birth, mother's breast milk is the best for the baby. If the mother gets a natural, non-denatured, man-appropriate nutrition, she will have sufficient milk for many months. Breastfeeding also is important to built up the baby's immune system, and especially important is the first breast milk after birth (colostrum). From about 4 months age on, the baby needs in addition good natural weaning food for an optimal growth and development.

For healthy growth of the baby and child it needs all indispensable natural nutrients including the growth and cell regenerating factors. But already before birth, from the moment of fecundation on, the embryo can only grow and develop properly in the mother, if all it needs (including also oxygen) is available and no toxins hinder its development. Even the biological quality of the mother's ovo and of the father's sperms depend on the same conditions, which allow cell regeneration and health in adults of any age. Therefore, the food preparation principles explained here are of general importance.

Only seeds and their germs contain sufficient quantities and qualities of the essential growth and cell regenerating factors. They only serve fully for growth, health and regeneration, if they are native, from living raw material, non-denatured, non-oxidized, non-heat-treated, uncooked. Cereals on one side and legumes (like lentils, chickpeas, peas) on the other side improve each other's biological protein value considerably. So there is no any animal protein needed, also no cow milk, which only would impair the baby's immunity against infections and lymphatic diseases.

Before starting the preparation, hands should be washed carefully, and clean water, clean bowl and mortar and clean spoon should be used. Also the seeds before and after germinating and fruits should be washed by cold (not hot) water, to preserve the vitality.

The highest health value of all food preparations is obtained by following these recommendations:

  1. Use only germinable (living, viable) seeds, cereals and legumes, preferably traditional landraces, grown on natural soil without chemical fertilizers, without pesticides and without fouling raw animal dung (aerobically rotted compost allowed). This means highest health values at lowest pollution and lowest costs.

  2. Use at least 2-3 different cereal together like barley, sorghum, oats, millet, wheat, emmerwheat, t'eff etc. and combine it with at least 2-3 legumes like lentils, chickpeas, peas, mungbeans. Other bean varieties only use when known by tradition or science that the< can be eaten germinated raw. The biological protein value of any combination of any combination is higher than using any one alone.

  3. All the legumes and half of the cereals are used germinated. For that, a mixture of e.g. two hands full of legumes and one hand full of cereals are put in a bowl, washed with clean cold water (which after that is poured out), and covered with a plate. After 3-5 hours again cold water is added and after only some minutes poured out. Over night, the pause can be 8-9 hours. This procedure is repeated, until the length of the germs coming out is about 3-5 mm. If a refrigerator is available, now the covered bowl can be put there, to preserve this germinating status for nearly one week. Each day once the germs have to be flooded with cold water, which immediately can be poured off to put the covered bowl back into the refrigerator. If no refrigerator is available, each day again a new portion of the seed mixture must be put for germinating.

  4. The actual meal preparation starts with taking one hand full of cereal mixture to grind it freshly to fine flour, and then mix the flour immediately with water and some 3-5 drops of lemon juice, to protect the mixture from oxidation.

  5. As a next step, one hand full of the germinated mixture of legumes and cereals is taken, washed in cold water and smashed (adding 3.5 drops of lemon juice) to fine puree in a (non-metal) mortar.

  6. Immediately both mixtures are mixed together, to continue the fresh preparation:

  7. a) 'Salty-taste' type: A small piece of carrot (size similar to half banana) is taken, smashed to fine puree and immediately mixed in, adding one pinch of salt. Small quantities of other smashed roots, tomatoes and smashed leafy salads could be added. The carrot base is important because of its vitamin A. Immediately after this preparation it should be fed to the baby by a clean spoon, in case of bigger children or adults eaten; any delay would cause oxidation and loss of health values.

    b) 'Sweet-taste' type: Half a banana is smashed and immediately mixed in. Add 3-5 drops of lemon juice. Small quantities of other washed and then smashed fruits could be added or taken instead of the banana. (Never add any sugar - it destroys teeth and health, and as well don't add honey). Immediately after this preparation it should be fed to the baby by a clean spoon, in case of bigger children or adults eaten; any delay would cause oxidation and loss of health values.

  8. For bigger children and adults, the carrot, other roots tomatoes and leafy salads or the fruits can be added in bigger pieces, e.g. cut in fine stripes. Also the germinated seeds can be left unsmashed. This allows to use the teeth for chewing, and ba that to keep them clean.  

    All raw, uncooked food keeps the teeth very clean, white and shining; all heated food causes the Ethiopian teeth problem No. 1: Tartar (because of precipitating the minerals from saliva).

By this procedures of preparation, all of the original health values of the cereals, legumes and other natural components are saved ontu the meal and can reach the human body, serving for healthy growth of the juvenile and maintaining health of the adult human organism.

The following scheme may contribute to understand the principles of preparation.

 

To print it click here: pamphlet_nutrition_and_health.pdf
(print quality optimized for Adobe Reader)

3.

A project outline for a nationally coordinated nutrition program
providing sufficient and healthy nutrition program for the country, involving the Ministry of Health (MOH) and an institution collaborating with both MOH and PGRC/E

 

It is not an easy, but challenging task to develop and carry out a nationally coordinated program,, providing sufficient and healthy nutrition for the country.

As a first step, some clear definitions (including the goal) should be made, and the actual situation should be investigated and dommented:

  • Which type of health should be maintained or restored by the sufficient and healthy nutrition?

  • Which qualities and quantities should a sufficient and healthy nutrition for the country have?

  • Which is the actual health status, morbidity, mortality, age pyramid of the population?

  • Which are the health qualities and quantities of the actual food supply in the country?

  • Which are the quality and quantity deficiencies?

  • What has ti be changed (increased, improved, reduced) to fill up the gaps and optimize health qualities of the nutrition?

  • What are the reasons and obstacles, why up to now - in a population 90% of them are farmers! - the quantities and health qualities of food supply are not sufficient?

  • In which time a sufficient and healthy nutrition of the country should be reached, taking into calculation the population growth of 2.9% per year during this time?

  • Which conditions (e.g. legal, economical, financial, informational, organizational, institutional ones) have to be improved, which others established new, to reach the goal of production and consumption of sufficient and healthy nutrition in the country within the given time?

After these questions are answered, a project planning and a strategy can be developed, how to come from the present unsatisfactory 'current reality' (probably 45% gap of total food supply, insufficient health maintaining food qualities) to the realization of the 'vision' of sufficient and healthy nutrition for the country.

We are sure that this goal can be reached. On the way to it, experiences will be made which are important not only for the country, but also for the world population. Probably also, as some of the 'side effects', endemic diseases like leprosy (presently about 180.000 leprosy patients in Ethiopia) and other health deficiencies like hypertension, diabetes, chronic gastritis will vanish from the country.

To succeed, it needs:

  • High integrated scientific knowledge,

  • effective coordination and management,

  • highly developed information and data collecting, processing, documentation and control system,

  • self-optimizing control structure of actions, evaluation of its effectiveness, next actions as consequences and again their evaluations etc. ...,

  • to have a clear vision, how the country, the environment, the population and their health should be in future, and which should be the main bases of economic success and prosperity.

The institutions who could realize such project for Ethiopia by cooperation and integration of theor knowledge, experience and structure are:

  • The Plant Genetic Resources Centre of Ethiopia - because of its experience, its knowledge, its committed management and staff, and its germplasm collection of about 52.000 varieties;

  • The Ministry of Health of Ethiopia - because of its health-oriented (not diseases-oriented) health policy, its health-animating training system and its natural responsibility for health in the country.

The first step of realization should be a feasibility study of the project, carried out by these institutions.

The project outline added as appendix could be helpful to develop a nationally coordinated nutrition program providing sufficient and healthy nutrition for the country.

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Summary

 

In this report the current status of evaluation and utilization of the Genebank's germplasm collection and expertise is documented.

Also information about the current quantitative and qualitative status of Ethiopian national food supply in general and concerning special food resources of importance in Primary Health Care are documented and commented.

A list of problems in Ethiopia, where Genevank's collection and expertise could be valuable (e.g. baby food) is elaborated.

Project outlines are developed for

  • a project to identify germplasm material possessing special characteristics of nutritional and health value with particular reference to indigenous landraces or primitive cultivars which constitute the bulk of PGRCE's germplasm collection;

  • two projects to develop special food resources of importance in Primary Health Care are:

    health-improved enjera mixtures and preparations;

    health-improved baby food mixtures and preparations;

  • a project for a nationally coordinated nutrition program providing sufficient and healthy nutrition for the country, involving the Ministry of Health and an experts collaborating with both MOH and PGRC/E.

In addition, two major improvements of the preparation principles and concrete and detailed recipes for two special food resources being most important in Primary Health Care were already developed and tested with positive results.

Instruction pamphlets for the population about both - the preparation of health-improved enjera as well as of health-improved baby food - made from traditional food crop landraces of Ethiopia - are worked out including their layouts for printing (2 pages Din A3, to fold on Din A4).

Now it is the task of the involved institutions, to work out a priority list of the outlined projects and to realize them one after the other.

We propose to start with the translation of the information pamphlet into Amharic and the other Ethiopian languages, to print it in all languages including English, and distribute them all over the country.

 

Überlingen am Bodensee (Germany), June 18, 1992

Dr. Johann Georg Schnitzer

 

 

The present (2013) address and contact data are:

Dr. Johann Georg Schnitzer
Zeppelinstr. 88,
D-88045 Friedrichshafen,
Deutschland/Germany
Fax +49-(0)7541-398561
mailto:Dr.Schnitzer@t-online.de E-Mail
http://www.dr-schnitzer.de D+E Site (German and English)
http://www.dr-schnitzer-buecher.de books (German and English)
http://www.dr-schnitzer.de/intrasearch.html Search (German and English)
http://www.dr-schnitzer.de/schnitzerreport-index.htm Experiences (German)
http://www.dr-schnitzer.de/emailnachrichten.html News (German)
http://www.dr-schnitzer.de/forum-documentation.html (German) 

____________________________________________________

 

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4.

Appendix I to project outline

4.1.

Initial phase of a project

4.1.1

Collect information on current status

4.1.2.

Project planning

4.1.2.1.

detailed resources and time plan

4.1.2.2

planning of animal experiments

4.1.2.3.

planning of data acquisition nutrition/health

4.1.2.4.

project plan nutritional values of plants

4.1.2.5.

project plan crop area determination

4.1.3.

First steps

4.1.3.1.

develop suggestions for crop area specialization based on current knowledge

4.1.3.2.

hiring of people

4.1.3.3.

preparation of animal experiments

4.1.3.4.

installation of vomputer hardware and standard software

4.1.3.5.

development of application programs for sub-projects

4.1.3.6.

training for project members

4.1.3.7.

establishment of project infrastructure

4.2.

Investigation phase of the project

4.2.1.

Nutritional status

4.2.1.1.

field data acquisition in selected urban/rural areas of population's nutritional status

4.2.1.1.1.

eating habits

4.2.1.1.2.

composition of major food

4.2.1.2.

preliminary analysis of results

4.2.1.2.1.

construction of database

4.2.1.2.2.

statistical evaluation

4.2.1.2.3.

improvement of data acquisition procedure

4.2.1.3.

field data acquisition in whole country

4.2.1.4.

analysis of results

4.2.2.

Health status

4.2.2.1.

design and construction of data acquisition equipment

4.2.2.2.

field data acquisition in selected rural/urban areas of population's health status

4.2.2.3.

preliminary analysis of results

4.2.2.3.1.

construction of database

4.2.2.3.2.

statistical evaluation

4.2.2.3.3.

improvement of data acquisition procedure

4.2.2.4.

field data acquisition in whold country

4.2.2.5

analysis of results

4.2.3.

Nutritional value of plants

4.2.3.1.

construction of a database with corrent knowledge about nutritional value of plants

4.2.3.2.

enhancement of database by results of analytical measurements

4.2.3.3.

animal experiments

4.2.3.3.1.

food quality determination by animal experiments

4.2.3.3.2

integrate results in database of nutritional value of plants (growth and regenerating factor)

4.2.3.4.

biophoton activity as indicator of food quality

4.2.3.5.

find geographical variations in contents of plants

4.2.3.6.

agricultural methods

4.2.3.6.1.

dependency of plant quality on soil

4.2.3.6.2.

dependency of soil quality on agricultural methods used

4.2.3.7.

influence of storage methods on plant quality

4.2.3.8.

use results of 3.6 amd 3.7 for starting a seperate project in agricultural training

4.2.4.

Current crop area specialization

4.2.4.1.

construction of a database on crop areas as a basis for future planning, using existing knowledge, especially on landraces

4.2.4.2.

construction of a database on food production

4.2.4.3.

construction of a database on the flow of crops from growing to consumer

4.2.4.4.

monitor crop yield by satellite data

4.2.4.4.1.

current status

4.2.4.4.2.

yield production

4.2.4.4.3.

planning for next year

4.2.5.

Environmental data

4.2.5.1.

water quality

4.2.5.2.

soil pollution

4.2.6.3.

radioactivity

4.3.

Evaluation, simulation and product development phase of the project

4.3.1.

Nutrition and Health

4.3.1.1.

documentation of requirements for healthy nutrition, definition of metrics

4.3.1.2.

determination of health value of consumed nutrition (see 4.2.:1.)

4.3.1.3.

health and nutrition

4.3.1.3.1.

correlation between consumed food and health status of the population

4.3.1.3.2.

find correlation between consumed food and specific diseases (e.g. lepra)

4.3.1.3.3.

find healthiest nutrition currently consumed in Ethiopia

4.3.2.

Development of nutrition

4.3.2.1.

develöpment of healthy baby food

4.3.2.1.1.

start with suggestion in this report

4.3.2.1.2.

plan research program for determining baby development with this food

4.3.2.1.3.

set up production, delivery and monitoring system

4.3.2.1.4.

monitor baby growth and development

4.3.2.1.5.

improve baby food based on research results

4.3.2.1.6.

distribution of information to population

4.3.2.2.

development of basic healthy nutrition: Enjera and wot

4.3.2.2.1.

start with results of this report

4.3.2.2.2.

improve enjera and develop healthy wot

4.3.2.2.3.

evaluate enjera and wot; tests of taste, analytical data, animal experiments

4.3.2.2.4.

improve food based on research results

4.3.2.3.

distribution of information to population

4.3.2.4.

computer simulation of different scenarios using input from '4.2. investigation phase'

4.3.2.4.1.

find effect of crop area planning on nutrition and health

4.3.2.4.2.

sensitivity analysis: How critical is crop area planning for sufficient and healthy nutrition?

4.3.2.5.

building of an information system giving nutritional recommendations to the population about food preparation based on the availability of crops

4.3.2.6.

development of diets for curing diseases

4.3.3.

Agriculture

4.3.3.1.

planning of crop area specialization to support the goal of a sufficient and healthy nutrition

4.3.3.2.

development of training program in optimal agricultural techniques

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4.4.

Appendix II to project outline
 Computer assisted analysis of satellite data and actualized statistics of crop production yields of varieties, humidity situation and health status of the food plants in the country

An effective medium to provide data on crop growth and crop yield prognosis is through satellite data processing. In the past, this required expensive resources, today this is possible with programs for digital picture processing of satellite data available for personal computers.

Satellite pictures allow a highly differentiated analysis of the following information:

  • Varieties which are planted in an area;

  • health/vitality status of plants;

  • development of growth;

  • number of plants per m² ;

  • humidity conditions (water supply):

  • climatological data.

Based on these data, the following information can be derived:

  • crop yield estimation (approximately two months before harvest) by using the information mentioned above;

  • optimum distribution of crop in the country;

  • recommendations for healthy food preparation based on availability;

  • planning of next year's crops.

 

Integrated computer monitoring and control system

 

Below a data flow diagram is shown, which was already developed as a supplement, worked out by Dr. Kurt Gruber, for the working paper 'Health and nutrition in Ethiopia', written by Dr. Johann Georg Schnitzer on request of the Ethiopian Ministry of Health from February 5, 1989.

This data flow diagram 'Health System in Ethiopia' is as well appropriate for the 'Nationally Coordinated Nutrition Program Providing Sufficient and Healthy Nutrition for the Country'.

As the following is part of an other former study, the Copyright of which is with Dr. Johann Georg Schnitzer, it is by his permission, that a copy could be added as an additional information to this study.

 

 

Health System for Ethiopia

(to study the following dictionary, the image above 'Health System in Ethiopia' could be printed)

 

 

Data Dictionary: PROCESS

 

 

AGENT

Government organizations which set goals for the coujntry's health status and receive feedback from the HEALTH MONITOR AND CONTROL SYSTEM to determine and initiate actions to influence the health status.

 

GET DATA

Data acquisition system which provides accurate and up-to-date health and environmental information.

 

HEALTH MONITOR AND CONTROL

This system provides feedback for AGENTS based on POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT STATUS (current reality) and OBJECTIVES (vision) using criteria in the KNOWLEDGE data store for evaluation of the situation.

 

RESEARCH

RESEARCH supports the HEALTH MONITOR AND CONTROL SYSTEM to evaluate correctly the current situation by providing the KNOWLEDGE data store. It determines which data should be collected by GET DATA.

 

 

Data Dictionary: DATA STORE

 

 

POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT STATUS

Health status (population statistics), eating habits, lifestyle, food supply (e.g. agricultural data), environmental data (incl. water quality), industrial data, medical treatment, economical data..

 

KNOWLEDGE

Foodstuff: contents, qualities, medical effects. Food requirements, health indicators, environmental requirements, models, expert knowledge, mutual dependencies, medical/dental treatments. Documentation: Health, nutrition, environment, criteria to evaluate current situation.

 

OBJECTIVES

Goals concerning health, environment, economy.

 

EXTERNAL DATA AND RESEARCH RESULTS

Literature, external databases (nutrition, medicine, environment), experimental data, experiment planning.

 

 

Data Dictionary: DATA FLOW

 

 

action

Plans/directives: Agricultural, environment, medical treatment, education, economy recommendations, distribute information (different media).

 

feedback

recommendation for actions, background information, trend analysis, statistical data.

 

goals

see data store OBJEDTIVES.

 

knowledge

see data store KNOWLEDGE.

 

 

Specifications

 

 

General functional specifications

  • Health monitoring and control system: Trough comparison of the current health status of the population and the health goals of the country, recommendations leading to health improving actions are derived; a knowledge data base on different topics (health, environment, medical treatment) and dependencies between them support the process of establishing recommendations.

Technical functional specifications

  • Support for storage and retrieval of data, text graphics; contents of data base are defined in the data flow diagram;

  • support of graphics output;

  • support of statistical methods;

  • support of knowledge engineering methods (expert systems);

  • support for literature search.

Attributes of system

  • Ease of use by professionals without special EDP knowledge;

  • easy to learn to use;

  • scalability: Should run on equipment of different size;

  • ubified user view for whole system;

  • adaptability; A new type of information may be added to the data base without affecting existing program:

  • open achritecture: no restriction on growth path;

  • ad hoc queries are easy to do;

  • language adaptability

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Suggestions

 

 

Solution ideas

  • 'Teach the teacher': Train support people within organizations involved;

  • use existing knowledge data base to start with, find useful data in nutritional databases, include data from the Plant Genetic Resources Centre;

  • suggestion for pilot project: find correlation between health and nutrition (/environment/lifestyle) and recommend appropriate agricultural planning;

  • advanced 4th generation central or distributed data base system;

  • access to database through communications network, unified access.

Planning suggestions

  • built a project team (with people from different organizations and levels in government) with the following goals:

    • establish current reality for this project

    • work on vision with all concerned.

  • methods: 

    • structural consulting (establish reality and vision)

    • 'Technologies for Creating' (learn how to create)

    • design by objectives (establish clear, measurable goals): Document inspection (alignment of goals on different levels), evolutionary delivery, metrics allowing evaluation of results

  • design and document the whole system on an abstract level: Goals --> functions, attributes;

  • decide on and get resources for next steps;

  • evolutionary delivery: principle: create results in small steps, evaluate each step and adjust further actions

    • choose a first project to implement on basis of high value/cost ratio: in a relatively short time frame (6-9 months) the first effects of this system (first recommendations to government) must be visible;

    • use results for check of whole system and design of next step, etc.

  • TFC at community level.
     

 

Pamphlet to print

http://www.dr-schnitzer.de/pamphlet_nutrition_and_health.pdf
(print quality optimized for Adobe Reader)

4 pages of information: 'Healthy Enjera fir Healthy Family' and 'Healthy Baby Food for Healthy Children, Health Genetic Reproduction Food - Healthy Cell Regeneration Food for Healthy Family'.

 

Formats possible to print on:

  • both sides of a sheet A3, fold to A4;

  • both sides of two sheets A4, clip together:

  • one side of four sheets A4, clip together.

 

 

 

 

© Copyright 1989-1992-2013  by Dr. J. G. Schnitzer, D-88045 Friedrichshafen, Germany

 

Dr. Johann Georg Schnitzer, Zeppelinstr. 88, D-88045 Friedrichshafen,  Deutschland/Germany
Fax +49-(0)7541-398561
mailto:Dr.Schnitzer@t-online.de E-Mail
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http://www.dr-schnitzer.de/emailnachrichten.html News (German)
http://www.dr-schnitzer.de/forum-documentation.html (German) 

 

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© Copyright 1989-1992-1998-2013 by Dr. J. G. Schnitzer, D-88045 Friedrichshafen, Germany

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